The International Journal of Plant Reproductive Biology
(Indexed by CABI)
ISSN Print : 0975-4296; ISSN Online : 2249-7390
Volume-9, Number-1, Jan, 2017
  Habitats and life-forms of some selected pteridophytes in Hungary

Tibor Szerdahelyi
Institute of Botany and Ecophysiology, Szent István University,
2100 Gödöllő, Páter K. u. 1. Hungary
*e-mail :
Received:29.06.2016; Revised: 17.08.2016; Accepted: 27.08.2016; Published online: 01.09.2016


The life-form of Hungarian ferns is closely adapted to climatic and microclimatic conditions and habitas. The temporal runoff of phenology of the terrestrial and water species slightly vary from each other but is strictly dependent on aerial and water temperature of habitats. On the basis of their habitats and life-forms, there are three groups of ferns in Hungary. The species of the first group live in dry and xerotherm habitats, (on cliffs and in rock grass communities) and their stems and leaves withered after spread of spores (e. g. some Botrychium spp.). The second group of ferns live in the intermediate conditions (in forest, meadows and other wet places e. g. bogs) and their leaves survive even after spreading spores (macrophyllous genera and partly some Equisetum spp.). The member of the third group belongs to the species of the water ferns (Azolla, Marsilea and Salvinia genera) living in almost constant temperature of medium.

Keywords : Climate, microclimate, terrestrial, aquatic, xerotherm

Volume : 9(1) pp. 1- 4, 2017 Download PDF

Pollen development and morphology in different Picea A. Dietr. species at the V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest Arboretum

Elena V. Bazhina, Marya I. Sedaeva, Olga V. Goryachkina and Elena N. Muratova*
V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch. Krasnoyarsk, Russia

Received: 23.05.2016; Accepted: 25.07.2016; Published on line: 01.09. 2016


Pollen development and morphology of four Picea A. Dietr. species at the V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest Arboretum have been studied. The researches have shown that pattern of pollen development in all four Picea species is largely the same as in other coniferous species. Pollen irregularities were found in 0, 20-27,8 % pollen grains. Ontogenesis of the spruce trees in a non-native climatic environment, such as at the Arboretum showed capability for adjustments to rapidly changing climatic conditions.

Keywords : Picea obovata, P. pungens, P. glehnii and P. mariana, ex situ conservation, pollen development, pollen morphology, irregularities.
Volume : 9(1) pp. 5- 12, 2017 Download PDF
  Cytoembryological study in Pinus sibirica (Pinaceae) with annual cycle of female cones

Iraida N. Tretyakova
V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk, Russia

*e-mail :
Received : 29.07.2016; Accepted: 24.08.2016; Published online: 01.09.2016


Embryonic development in Pinus sibirica (Siberian pine) with annual generation cycle and seed production was studied. Gametogenesis, archegonium formation and other embryogical events had the following scenario in Siberian pine growing in their natural habitat:

The female gametophyte develops only up to 1.5 month vs. one year for typical Siberian pine trees; extremely early development of archegonia and egg-cell maturation; no fertilization, whereas the division of haploid nuclei takes place; seeds have welldeveloped endosperm and show corrosion cavities; and embryo is absent.

Keywords : Pinus sibirica, annual reproductive cycle, female cones, archegonium, egg-cell.
Volume : 9(1) pp. 13- 17, 2017 Download PDF

Standardization of pollen germination medium for Pittosporum eriocarpum
an endemic, endangered tree species of Central and Western Himalayas

Kadambini Das*, Rajesh Tandon and A. K. Bhatnagar
Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India

*e-mail :
Received: 12.09.2015; Revised: 25.06.2016; Accepted: 25.08.2016; Published online: 01.09.2016

Skewed gender ratio of unisexual plants in a population could be detrimental to optimal fruit/seed-set and sustenance of a species. In instances of non-availability of sufficient pollen donors or quality pollen donors, storage of pollen for supplemental pollination has proved to be a reliable strategy. However, testing the germinability and viability of pollen grains under in vitro conditions at the time of collection or after storage is a pre-requisite. Optimization of pollen germination media, especially in case of threatened and endemic plant species, may help in their breeding and conservation to ensure seed formation in years of low yield and poor recruitment. Here, we present the details of a standardized pollen germination medium for Pittosporum eriocarpum, an endangered tree species, which does not respond to Brewbaker and Kwack’s (BK) medium, usually employed to ascertain pollen germinability. The optimized BK medium, improves pollen germination and the pollen tube growth responses up to 75% and 111.76 μm long, respectively; in control the response was only 28% and 60.08 μm long. Storage of pollen of the species at low temperature (4°C) helped in maintaining the viability up to a significant period of time (six months).
Keywords : RET trees, pollen germination, pollen tube growth, germination medium.
Volume : 9(1) pp. 18- 24, 2017 Download PDF

Observations on the reproductive biology of Solanum torvum Swartz (Solanaceae) : an important medicinal plant in North-east India

*Moumita Saha and B. K. Datta
Plant Taxonomy and Biodiversity Laboratory, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar-799022, India

Received: 21.11.2015; Revised: 11.07.2016; Accepted: 25.08.2016; Published online: 01.09.2016


Solanum torvum Swartz commonly known as Turkey berry is an important medicinal plant distributed in tropical and subtropical countries. In order to its conservation, present study on its floral morphology, anthesis, pollen morphology, germination, viability, foraging behaviour of flower visitors and meiotic system of Solanum torvum has been undertaken. This plant blooms throughout the year with peak flowering in April-May and with fruiting till the shrub attains the height of 1-1.5 m. The flowers are small borne in extra axillary much branched cymes. Maximum pollen germination (70%) along with 115μm tubes develop in 10% sucrose solution supplemented with 100 ppm boric acid. It is diploid with 2n=24. Pollen grains are radially symmetrical and trizonocolporate. The mean pollen: ovule ratio is 1064:1. Apis dorsata is the effective pollinator. Flowers set fruit in bagged condition indicating self-compatible nature of the plant and the emasculated flowers failed to set fruit showing no evidence of obligate apomixis in this species.  

Keywords : Reproductive biology, Solanum torvum, floral morphology, meiotic system.
Volume : 9(1) pp. 25- 27, 2017 Download PDF

In vitro culture of a rare ornamental orchid, Hygrochilus parishii (Veith & Rchb.f.) Pfitz

R. Shadang , Padmanabh Dwivedi and S. N. Hegde
State Forest Research Institute, Itanagar- 791 111

Department of Plant Physiology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Baranas Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005
Patkai Christian College, Chumukedima, Patkai – 797 103, Nagaland
# Arunodaya, Rajivgandhinagar, P B No 9123, P.O. Viswhaneedam, Bangalore 560091, India

*e-mail :
Received : 7 April 2016; Revised: 20.08.2016; Accepted: 29.08.2016; Publish online: 01.09.2016


Leaves and roots of Hygrochilus parishii (Veith & Rchb.f.) Pfitz were inoculated in Murashige & Skoog (MS) basal, half strength MS and V&W culture media supplemented with 15% coconut milk (CM) and various growth regulators such as BAP, NAA, IAA and Kn of various strength, either singly or in combination. Highest response of leaf base culture produced 50% protocorm like bodies (Plbs) in V&W media supplemented with 0.5 mgl-1 NAA and 15% CM. Maximum (50%) shoot bud was produced in V&W medium supplemented with 0.5 mgl-1 BAP and 15% CM, followed by ˝MS medium supplemented with 1.0 Kn. Formation of Plbs and callus was observed in V&W supplemented with 0.5 - 1.0 mgl-1 BAP and NAA in presence of 15% CM. Shoot bud developed from leaf - base only. When root tips were cultured in full strength MS medium having CM (15%) and 0.5 mg1-l BAP, 25% Plbs and shoot bud were obtained.

Keywords : Orchid, MS Medium, Leaf, Root Culture, Protocom like bodies
Volume : 9(1) pp. 28- 31, 2017 Download PDF

Pollination biology of Curcuma aeruginosa (Zingiberaceae): An important medicinal plant

K. Aswani and M. Sabu
Angiosperm Taxonomy & Floristic Division, 2Department of Botany, University of Calicut, Kerala – 673635, India

*e-mail :
Received : 31.03.2016; Revised: 07.08.2016; Accepted: 30.08.2016; Published online: 01.09.2016


The present study reports the details of phenology, floral biology, pollination biology and breeding system of C. aeruginosa (Zingiberaceae), in Kerala, India. C. aeruginosais strictly seasonal and bears approximately 7–9 flowers/inflorescence during the peak time of flowering. The nectar is rich in sucrose (77%). The most frequent and efficient pollinator is Amegilla sp. (Apidae). Higher percentage of pollen sterility is the cause of poor fruit-set in C. aeruginosa.

Keywords : Amegilla sp., Curcuma aeruginosa, fruitlessness, sterility.
Volume : 9(1) pp. 32- 36, 2017 Download PDF
  Melissopalynological studies of Honey samples from Bastar District, Chhattisgarh
Neha Singh and S.K.Chaturvedi*
Department of Botany, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, Koni, Bilaspur (CG)- 495009, India

*e-mail :
Received : 27.12.2015; Revised: 25.06.2016; Accepted: 25.08.2016; Published online: 01.09.2016
The qualitative as well as quantitative analaysis of pollen grains in the honey sample collected during winter season from Bastar district (CG) revealed the presence of 7,073 pollen grains per 10 g of honey sample. These pollen grains belong to 22 genera of angiosperms. Out of total number of pollen grains present, pollen grains of Antigonon leptopus Hook & Arn. (Polygonaceae) alone represented 49% (3,494). Therefore, the honey sample has been categorized as “unifloral”..


Keywords : Phaius tankervilleae, Xylocopa violacea, Biotic - pollinators, Nototribic pollination. 
Volume : 9(1) pp. 37- 40, 2017 Download PDF

Somatic embryogenesis in date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) 'Deglet Nur' and 'Takerbucht' cultivars

 N. Bouguedoura*, F. Si-Dehbi, K. Fergani, A. Arban and D. Chabane
Laboratoire de Recherche sur les Zones Arides (LRZA), Faculté des Sciences Biologiques (FSB), Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumedične (USTHB). BP 32 El Alia, Bab-Ezzouar,16111, Alger, Algérie

*e-mail :
Received: 08.07.2016 ; Revised : 21.09.2016; Accepted: 01.10.2016; Published online: 10.10.2016


The date palm has a pivotal role in the oasis ecosystem and it is an important food crop and commercial commodity. The cloning or protoplast fusion can increase breeding and multiplication of many varieties. Present investigation has been undertaken with the aim to develop methods for obtaining plantlets by somatic embryogenesis either from vegetative or female floral explants, as well as by the production of viable protoplasts of two cultivars, one resistant and another of high fruit quality. Also to develop by protoplast fusion a new variety with both resistance and better fruit quality which are absent in the selected cultivars.

Keywords : Cell suspension, female floral explants, protoplasts, Saharan agriculture, somatic embryogenesis, date plam.  Volume : 9(1) pp. 43- 48, 2017 Download PDF
  Artemisia glauca Pall. ex Willd. – an unexplored shrub of immense economic value
Gazala Jaffri Mir, Uma Bharti, Rinchen Gurmet and Namrata Sharma*
Department of Botany, University of Jammu- 180006

*e-mail :
Received: 11.07.2016; Revised: 25.10.2016; Accepted: 01.11.2016; Published online: 01.01.2017

  Present work is based on the details of morphological and reproductive features in a hiterto unexplored species of genus Artemisia glauca Pall. ex Willd., abounding Jammu province of Jammu &Kashmir, India. A. glauca forms distinct populations in the subtemperate areas of the state and is economically relevant as a spice, flavouring agent and source of essential oils. A. glauca belongs to section Dracunculus; a group peculiar in having functional monoecy. Species is a rhizomatous perennial shrub which perennates in winter through a rootstock that sprouts in the month of March-April. Each rhizome produces 1-5 offshoots/season which are green, herbaceous and grooved. The flowers are borne in panicled racemes terminating into heads. Each inflorescence is heterogamous and bears 19-34 florets which are either female or functionally male. Fruit is cylindrical achene enclosing the seed without a pappus. Seed is ridged brown, oblong (1-2mm long) with a narrow base. Low fruit and seed set is observed in open pollinated plants of the species (21.1+ 4.02). Selfing reduces it drastically. Seed set in bagged inflorescences averages 5.19% only.

Keywords : Artemisia, herbaceous, rhizomatous, heterogamous, achene
Volume : 9(1) pp. 49- 52, 2017 Download PDF
  Floral phenology, flower-visitor interaction and pollination of Abrus precatorius L.

Sandip Choudhury, Subrata Mondal* and Sudhendu Mandal
Department of Botany, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan- 731235, West Bengal (India)

*e-mail :
Received: 05.08.2016; Revised: 07.11.2016; Accepted: 01.12.2016; Published online: 01.01.2017



The present paper reveals the floral phenology, flower-visitor interaction and pollination of Abrus precatorius L., a medicinally important plant of the family Fabaceae. The flowers are small, zygomorphic, pale pink in short dense racemes which open in morning (06:00–08:00 h) and simultaneously anther dehiscence as well as nectar secretion took place. Each flower produced an average of 2052 pollen grains and P/O is 342:1. Different insects like Apis dorsata, A. florea, Amegilla sp., Trigona and ants (Hymenoptera), Catopsilia crocale, Danaus chrysippus, Papilio demolius and Hypolimnas misippus (Lepidoptera), Thrips hawaiiensis (Thysanoptera) and Sarcophaga sp. (Diptera) were found to visit the flowers in searching of floral rewards i.e. pollen and nectar. Members of Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and flies (Diptera) visit only after flower opening while ants continuously paid their visit to flowers. The effect of nutrients like sucrose in combination with boric acid were tested on in vitro pollen germination to know the pollen viability and optimum nutrient requirements for pollen germination. The highest germinating pollen (92%) along with 910±3.27 μm long pollen tube was obtained in 25% sucrose solution supplemented with 100ppm boric acid. Stigma showed maximum receptivity after 3hr of anthesis with reference to in vivo pollen germination, esterase and peroxidase activity. Presence of copious esterase over stigma surface and peroxidase coincided with its receptivity. The percentage of fruit set was considerably higher in natural open flowers compared to netted and bagged flowers, indicating the vital role of insects for successful pollination. Pollination success rate depends largely on cross-pollination assisted by pollinator activities, especially by bees.
Keywords : Pollination, pollen germination, stigma receptivity, esterase, peroxidase, Abrus precatorius
Volume : 9(1) pp. 53- 58, 2017 Download PDF

Reproductive biology of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lamk. (Solanaceae) in Tripura, North-east India

Moumita Saha* and B. K. Datta
Plant Taxonomy and Biodiversity Laboratory, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar-799022

*e-mail :
Received : 09.09.2016; Revised: 01.12.2016; Accepted: 01.01.2017; Published online: 01.01.2017


Solanum sisymbriifolium
or sticky nightshade, an annual plant, becomes increasingly abundant from April until late autumn. Flowers are borne on supra axillary cymose and take 12 to 15 days to convert into mature fruits. Opening of flowers started in the morning between 0600-0800h. During 1
st day colour of the flower is white and for the subsequent days the colour changes into light purple. Flower longevity was a little more than 3 days - ranged between 72 to 74 hr (mean ± SE = 73.2± 0.58). The maximum (85%) pollen germination along with 110μm tube development was found in 10% sucrose solution supplemented with 100 ppm boric acid. Pollen grain of S. sisymbriifolium is trizonocolporate. The number of pollen produced per flower varies from 8, 75,445 - 8, 79,450. The percentage of viable pollen using FDA test is 71.20 ±3.360. The mean pollen: ovule ratio is 10819:1. Chromosome counts revealed that S. sisymbriifolium is diploid i.e., 2n=24. Xylocopa, Ceratina, Amegilla are the effective pollinators Flowers set fruit in bagged condition indicating self-compatible nature of the plant and the emasculated flowers failed to set fruit showing no evidence of obligate apomixis in the species

Keywords : Reproductive biology, Solanum sisymbriifolium, self-compatibility, breeding system.
Volume : 9(1) pp. 59- 62, 2017 Download PDF

Differentiation of reproductive structures and experimental sex change in Volvox (Chlorophyta, Volvocaceae)

A. G. Desnitskiy

Department of Embryology, Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, 199034, Universitetskaya nab. 7/9, Russia
Received: 24.11.2016; Accepted: 12.12.2016; Published online: 01.01.2017


This paper represents a brief review on current topics in both asexual and sexual reproduction of Volvox L., a green colonial freshwater alga, which is a valuable model of contemporary developmental biology of plants. In the case of asexual life cycle, the main attention is paid to published data on the mechanisms of differentiation into reproductive and somatic cells of Volvox carteri  f. nagariensis Iyengar (the most thoroughly studied species and forma of Volvox) as well as to author’s data showing considerable ontogenetic diversity and different types (programs) of asexual development and reproduction processes within the genus Volvox. Published data on sexual reproduction and experimental sex change in Volvox are considered with respect to the abovementioned problem of ontogenetic diversity.

Keywords : cell differentiation, gene MID, green algae, reproduction, sex transformation, Volvox.

  Volume : 9(1) pp. 63- 68, 2017 Download PDF

  Pollination biology of Syzygium caryophyllatum (L.) Alston (Myrtaceae)

Geethika K. and M. Sabu*
Taxonomy division, Department of Botany, University of Calicut, Kerala - 673635, India

e-mail :
Received: 01.11.2016; Revised: 11.12.2016; Accepted and Published online: 01.01.2017


The pollination biology of Syzygium caryophyllatum (L.) Alston (Myrtaceae) plants growing at Botanical Garden, University of Calicut, Kerala was studied. The inflorescence of S. caryophyllatum is terminal corymbose cymes. The flowers are white each has many ovules but only one ovule develops into seed. Hence fruit set and seed set are same in number. The floral traits indicate a mixed pollination syndrome involving entomophily and anemophily, which is known as ambophily. Apis dorsata is the most frequent visitor.

Keywords : Syzygium caryophyllatum, phenology, stigma receptivity, pollination biology, ambophily.

  Volume : 9(1) pp. 69- 72, 2017 Download PDF

  Reproductive biology of Amherstia nobilis WALL. (Fabaceae)

R. Renjumol and *P.M. Radhamany
Department of Botany,University of Kerala, Kariavattom,Thiruvananthapuram,Kerala-695581

*e-mail :
Received : 01.11.2016; Revised : 11.12.2016; Accepted and Published online : 01.01.2017


Amherstia nobilis Wall.(Fabaceae) is a critically endangered tree species of north-east India. Present investigation was undertaken to obtain information on the phenology, pollination and breeding system of A. nobilis growing in Thiruvananthapuram district. It flowers between November-April with maximum flowering during February and March. The flowers were large, bisexual, odourless, crimson red and arranged in long pendulous racemes. The flowers were highly protandrous as anthers dehisced in buds much prior to stigma receptivity. The anthers were versatile and produced large quanity of pollen/flower (86759±447.77) showing only 29±5% viability by FDA test and 35% in vitro germination in B&K medium,while only 25% germinate on stigmatic surface. Anthers are bithecous, versatile and dehisce longitudinally. Maximum fruit (24.1 plant) and seed-set was recorded in open pollinated plants. There were 4±1 ovules/flower and the pollen-ovule ratio was 21689.75:1. Production of large number of pollen by versatile anthers and high pollen-ovule ratio indicate anemophilous nature of A. nobilis.

Keywords : Amherstia nobilis, Fabaceae, pollination, pollen-ovule ratio, breeding–system
Volume : 9(1) pp. 73- 76, 2017 Download PDF

Studies on the morphology of stamens and pollen grains in some cultivars of Spanish chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.)

J. Morales Gonzalez1 , V. Ferri2, M. Cerri2 , F. Ferranti2, G. Frenguelli2, and L. Reale2,*
Departamento de Biología Vegetal y Ecología, Universidad de Sevilla, E-41012 Sevilla, Spain
Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Perugia, Borgo XX Giugno
74, 06121 Perugia, Italy

*e-mail : Corresponding author
Received : 01.11.2016; Revised : 15.11.2016; Accepted: 15.12.2016; Published online: 01.01.2017


Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) is a multi-purpose species cultivated for timber and nuts. However, recent years have seen a reduction in chestnut production. There are several reasons for this including abandonment of traditional cultivation practices, plant diseases, and problems during pollen differentiation. It appears that reduction in chestnut yield, recorded over recent decades, is associated with a decrease in the trees with longistaminate catkins, which are low yielding, but are fundamental for efficient pollination and the successive fertilization. Present study has been undertaken to provide new insights into the stamen and pollen morphology of four Andalusian chestnut cultivars (‘Helechal’, ‘Temprana’, ‘Vázquez’,‘Ancha de Alŕjar’). It was observed that catkins in these cultivars are brachistaminate, and poor fertilization capability. The cultivar ‘Vázquez’ showed the longest stamens, and also the highest percentage of normal pollen and therefore, show highest fertilization capacity. On the other hand, shortest stamens and the lowest percentage of normal pollen grains, were recorded in cultivar ‘Ancha de Alŕjar’ which cannot be considered a good pollinator.

Keywords : Castanea sativa, catkins, stamen, pollen
Volume : 9(1) pp. 77- 81, 2017 Download PDF
  Pollen polymorphism in Feronia limonia (L.) Swingle (Rutaceae)

Seema Chauhan
Academy of Life Sciences, 8/13 I Kaushalpur, Bye Pass Road, Agra-282005, India

*e-mail :
Received : 12.01.2016; Revised: 11.12.2016; Accepted and Published online: 01.01.2017

Feronia limonia (L.) Swingle syn. Limonia acidissima L. is a monotypic genus in the sub tribe-Balsamocitrinae; tribe- Citreae; sub family- Aurantioideae of the family Rutaceae. It is commonly known as kait, kaitha, wood-apple or elephant apple. It is a native of Indomalaya ecozone of Bangladesh, India and Sri Lanka. This deciduous slow growing tree flowers in April-June and the flowers are arranged in terminal cymes bearing 8-10 stamens with dark anthers (Chauhan 2015). In the present communication an attempt has been made to describe pollen morphology in Feronia limonia.
Keywords : Mono-, bi-, tri-, tetra, penta-colporate, reticulate exine.
Volume : 9(1) pp. 82- 83, 2017 Download PDF

Influence of low temperature treatment and phytohormones on regeneration
through anther culture in two cultivars of rice

Arti Yadav, Sapana and Prem Kumar Dantu*
Plant Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Dayalbagh Educational Institute
(Deemed University), Dayalbagh, Agra (282005), India
e-mail :


Anther culture is a simple, efficient and cost effective technique to produce haploid plants in a single step and was first reported in Datura innoxia (Guha and Maheshwari 1964). In rice, haploids through anther culture were reported by Niizeki and Oono (1968). The haploids could be diplodized to produce homozygous pure lines, also called double haploids, and cut short the time and cost required to produce homozygous pure lines through conventional breeding methods (Bhojwani and Dantu 2013). During the past decades numerous papers have been published on the anther culture of rice and this technique has been extensively used in rice breeding (Bambang et al. 2010, Silva 2010, Herath and Bandara 2011). Recently, Kaushal et al. (2015) have shown improved green plant regeneration of rice anther culture by auxin.

Keywords: Anther culture, Indica rice, Japonica rice, Phytohormones, Haploid, and Plant regeneration.
Volume : 9(1) pp. 86- 88, 2017 Download PDF

Phenology of cultivated species of Cycas zeylanica (J.Schust.) A.Lindstr. & K.D.Hill

Seema Chauhan
Academy of Life Sciences, 8/13 I Kaushalpur, Bye Pass Road, Agra-282005, India

e-mail :


The living cycads are found across the subtropical and tropical parts of the world (Whitelock 2002). According to recent classification, the order Cycadales consists of two families: Cycadaceae and Zamiaceae (Christenhusz et al. 2011), while, in earlier classification, family Stangeriaceae was also included in the order (Whitelock 2002). There are 10 accepted genera and 347 accepted species of cycads and Cycas is the type genus and only one recognised in the family Cycadaceae. It has 114 species (Calonje et al. 2016) and there are 11 species of Cycas in India (Singh and Khuraijam 2016).

Volume : 9(1) pp. 84- 85, 2017 Download PDF
II Home II Contact Us II Journal & Guidelines II Journal II Membership II