The International Journal of Plant Reproductive Biology
(Indexed by CABI)
ISSN Print : 0975-4296; ISSN Online : 2249-7390
Journal Volume-8, Number-2, July, 2016
  Anamorph (asexual stage) Teleomorph (sexual stage) Connections in Aquatic hyphomycetes

S. C. Sati* and Richa Pathak
Department of Botany D.S.B. Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital-263002, India

e-mail :
Received : 12. 09. 2015; Revised: 11.11.2015; Accepted & Published on line: 01.07.2016

Aquatic hyphomycetes are the members of deuteromycetous fungi, characterized by their magnificent spore type released in water. Earlier these fungi are known only for their anamorphs but now they are also linked with their sexual stages i.e. teleomorph. However on the basis of morphological features of these fungi have created some confusion in their systematic study. To understand the better settlement of their systematic position the molecular techniques based on ITS, RAPD etc. may be more useful. This paper discusses such problems and suggesting that conidial shape is not sufficient to anamorph - teleomorph link. The molecular techniques and ITS sequences required to determine the patterns of anamorph- teleomorph relations of these fungi.
Keywords : Aquatic hyphomycetes, Anamorph -Teleomorph
Volume : 8 Journal Volume-8, Number-2, July, pp-128-135 2016 Download PDF

Studies on the gametophyte development and gametangial ontogeny in Microsorum scolopendria (Burm. f.) Copel.

Priti**, Pratibha Kumari, Ruchi Srivastava and P.L. Uniyal**
Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India

*e-mail : *,
Received : 03.11.2015; Revised: 21.01.2016; Accepted & Published on line: 01.07.2016


Microsorum scolopendria is an important ornamental and medicinal fern. The fronds arise from black-scaly stems (rhizomes) that creep along the soil surface or grow on other plants as epiphyte. The plant paste provides a significant protection against phytophagous insects. The study deals with the pattern of spore germination and gametophyte development. Spore germination pattern is found to be polar and Vittaria type’. Prothallial development is ‘Drynaria type’. In this plant protoandry ensures the cross fertilization to maintain the heterozygosity in the populations.

Keywords : Microsorum scolopendria, gametophyte, growth, bisexual, fern.
Volume : 8 Journal Volume-8, Number-2, July, pp-136-138, 2016 Download PDF

Meiosis at microsporogenesis in Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr. (Gmelin larch) at the V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest Arboretum

Olga V. Goryachkina and Elena N. Muratova*
V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch. Krasnoyarsk, Russia

*e-mail :*
Received : 02.03.2016; Accepted and Published on line: 01.07.2016


The results of study on Larix gmelinii meiosis at microsporogenesis are presented. Meiosis is characterized by various anomalies. Common and specific types of meiotic irregularities were found at different stages. These irregularities can be the cause of heterogeneous pollen formation with different ploidy levels and other anomalies of development.

Keywords : Gmelin larch, conifers, microsporogenesis, meiosis, irregularities of meiosis.
Volume : 8 Journal Volume-8, Number-2, July, pp-139-144, 2016 Download PDF
  Phenology of Gymnosperms of Nainital, Kumaun Himalaya, India

P. Kumar and *S. C. Sati
Department of Botany,D.S.B. Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital-263002, India

*e-mail :
Received : 17.02.2016; Accepted and Published on line: 1.07.2016

Gymnosperms are naked seeded plants of geological past but still form dominant vegetation modern time. This paper deals with a review on the phenology of gymnosperms occurring in Nainital, Kumaun Himalaya. Nainital, Kumaun Himalaya florished by a number of wild and exotic species of gymnosperm of decorative as well as aesthetic values. Altogether 16 species belonging to 15 genera of gymnosperms are described here which occur either in wild or in cultivated form. These plants play pivotal role in natural habitat formulation and scenic beauty of Nainital. The present study is an exclusive attempt to highlight the phenology (i.e., leave fall, seed germination, cones or seeds formation, maturation etc.) of these plants.
Keywords : Gymnosperm, Phenology, Nainital, Kumaun Himalaya
Volume : 8 Journal Volume-8, Number-2, July, pp-145-157, 2016 Download PDF
  Floral biology and reproductive attributes of six cultivated accessions of pigeonpea

Divya Mohanty1, Atika Chandra2 and Rajesh Tandon ,*
1Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi- 110 007, India
2Department of Botany, Maitreyi College, University of Delhi, Delhi-110021, India

*e-mail :
Received: 20.09.2015; Revised: 14.12.2015; Accepted and published on line: 01.07.2016


Leguminous crops offer numerous challenges in their improvement of yield. The narrow genetic base of present day legume cultivars is considered to be the major hurdle. Wide hybridization involving various cultivars and the relatives of target crop is considered a suitable strategy provided that there is scope for outcrossing, either naturally (dichogamy/herkogamy) or by manually overcoming the crossability barriers. Thus, the basic details of floral biology of crop plants in their respective agroclimatic zones are essential. Here, we provide a baseline data on the floral biology and some reproductive attributes of the six widely cultivated varieties of Cajanus cajan (pigeonpea). The study shows that the cultivars are predominantly protandrous, viability of the fresh pollen ranges between 60-90%, the potential brood size is realized by the time anthesis is achieved, variable rates of seed abortion (~ 8-26%) occur in the cultivars and pollen:ovule ratio suggests facultative xenogamous type of breeding system. The findings would be useful in designing pollination experiments to facilitate crosses among the cultivars and related species.

Keywords: legumes, protandry, maturity groups, tripping, seed abortion.
Volume : 8 Journal Volume-8, Number-2, July, pp-158-165, 2016 Download PDF
Resource allocation in angiosperms

Veenu Kaul
Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu-180006, India

e-mail :
Received : 13.08.2015; Revised: 13.11.2015; Accepted and Published on line: 1.07.2016


The ‘principle of allocation’ advocates that every organism partitions the resources available to it for meeting the requirements for growth, maintenance, defense and reproduction. The pattern and magnitude of allocation for various functions determine their relative importance during the lifespan of an organism. Together these patterns are expected to reflect resource economies in plant reproduction and have important implications in their life history strategies and evolution. The present communication brings into focus some of the studies done in this direction.

Keywords : allocation, economy, resource, reproductive effort.
Volume : 8 Journal Volume-8, Number-2, July, pp-166-172, 2016 Download PDF

Floral structure and the fruit-set in Psydrax dicoccos Gaertn. (Rubiaceae) in relation to foraging behaviour of floral visitors

Subha V and Selva Singh Richard*
Department of Botany, Madras Christian College, Tambaram, Chennai-600059, India

*e-mail : **
Received : 15.11.2015; Revised: 12.02.2016; Accepted and Published on line: 01.07.2016


This study explains the floral structure and fruitset in Psydrax dicoccos in relation to the visit and behavioural pattern of the floral visitors. The morphological and anatomical features of P. dicoccos flowers are highly complex and specially designed for the broader spectrum of floral visitors. The flowers are hermaphrodite, actinomorphic, pentamerous with light-green calyx and white or greenish-white short tubular corollahaving dense ring of hairs in the internal part of the corolla tube, producing weak pleasant odour. In between the style and corolla occurs a thick circular nectariferous disc which secretes small quantity of nectar. Nectar and pollen are the major floral rewards for the floral visitors. Investigation on the floral visitors of P. dicoccos flowers has revealed 38 species of various functional groups such as butterfly, wasp, bee, moth, fly, ant, bug, spider and a reptile. Breeding experiment showed significant difference between the fruit-set of netted inflorescence (25.6%) and open inflorescence (80.6%). This highlights the influence of floral visitors in the process of pollination and the fruit-set of P. dicoccos.


Keywords : Floral structure, floral visitors, pollen, nectar, fruit-set.
Volume : 8 Journal Volume-8, Number-2, July, pp-173-185, 2016 Download PDF

Impact of tropospheric O on reproductive growth and 3 development of plants-A Review

Richa Rai, Madhoolika Agrawal* and S. B. Agrawal
Department of Botany,Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India

*e-mail :*
Received : 02.09.2015; Revised: 10.09.2015; Accepted and Published on line: 01.07.2016


Tropospheric ozone (O ) is a harmful secondary air pollutant which negatively affects plant growth and development. Present O 3 3 concentrations cause reductions in crop yields. Numerous studies have shown indirect effects of O to the vegetative organs and 3 associated changes in the supply of assimilates and other essential resources to support reproductive growth, which is a crucial stage in the life cycle. However, there are limited studies reporting on direct effects of O on reproductive development. So the 3present review focuses on quantification of impact of O on reproductive growth of crops, trees and native species. The studies 3 have shown changes in anther development, reductions in pollen viability and pollen tube germination. Reductions in number of floral sites, number of flowers and inflorescence, number of ovules per capsule and increase in numbers of abortive reproductive sites leading to reductions in yield attributes and crop yield. Reproductive development of both C and C plants is found to be 3 4 sensitive to O . Indeterminate crops have more ability to compensate against O stress compared to determinate crops and thus 3 3 maintain their yield. It is difficult to generalize the effects of O on reproductive development due to the complexity in the nature of 3 the effects of O on vegetative and reproductive structures. Compensatory mechanisms in plants with different reproductive 3 growth habits and the dependence of plant developmental stages modify the level of sensitivity.

Keywords : Ozone, anthers, ovules, seeds, C & C , crops
Volume : 8 Journal Volume-8, Number-2, July, pp-186-196, 2016 Download PDF

Reproductive biology of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus Nees: An important medicinal plant of North-East India

Moumita Saha* and B. K. Datta
Plant Taxonomy and Biodiversity Laboratory, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar-799022, India

*e-mail :*
Received : 05.11.2015; Revised: 28.12.2015; Accepted and published on line: 01.07.2016


Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus Nees is an important medicinal plant of the family Acanthaceae. The present article recorded different reproductive parameters of this species including floral morphology, anthesis, pollen production, germination, viability, foraging behaviour of flower visitors and the meiotic system. The species generally flowers during December-February and mature fruits during March-April. Flowers open in between 5.00 to 6.00 hrs. A single flower produces an average of 59,702 pollen grains. The maximum pollen germination was found in 15 % sucrose solution supplemented with 100 ppm boric acid. Pollen viability was determined by using Tetrazolium test (TTC), Muntzing’s mixture and Acetocarmine. Chromosome counts revealed that Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus is diploid i.e., 2n =42.

Keywords : Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus, Reproductive biology, Floral morphology, Meiotic system.
Volume : 8 Journal Volume-8, Number-2, July, pp-197-201, 2016 Download PDF

 Pollen morphology in Inula L. (Asteraceae) and related genera in India

Shweta Shekhar1 and Arun K. Pandey *
1Department of Botany, H.N.B. Govt. Post-Graduate College, Naini-211008 (Allahabad), India

2Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007, India
*e-mail :
Received : 19.02.2016; Revised: 10.04.2016; Accepted and Published on line: 01.07.2016


In Inula (s.s.), Duhaldea, Dittrichia and Iphiona pollen grains are usually radially symmetrical, isopolar, prolate-spheroidal rarely oblate-speroidal (Inula obtusifolia), mostly tricolporate, rarely tetracolporate (Iphiona grantioides) and zono-aperturate. Spines are mostly acute-acuminate or sometimes rounded-blunt along with few acute apices (Inula rhizocephala). On the basis of spines apices, P/E ratio and polar length, presently studied taxa are grouped under 3 major types viz., (1) Inula acuminata-type (2) Inula rhizocephala-type and (3) Duhaldea cappa-type.

Keywords :
Inula, Asteraceae, pollen, Taxonomic Considerations.

Volume : 8 Journal Volume-8, Number-2, July, pp-202-207, 2016 Download PDF
  Reproductive Biology of Clerodendrum phlomidis (Lamiaceae)

Department of Botany, B.S.A. College, Mathura-282001, India

Received : 12.07. 2014; Revised: 12.12.215; Accepted & Published on line: 01. 07. 2016


Clerodendrum phlomidis (Lamiaceae) is an ornamental ever green shrub. Flowering occurs during the period between October - February. Flowers are creamy white or pale yellowish, pedicellate, pentamerous, zygomorphic, hermaphrodite and hypogynous. Anthesis occur between 2030 – 2130hrs followed by anther dehiscence at 2200 – 0130hrs. Stigma becomes receptive at 0300 – 0700 hrs. There are 3980 ± 600 pollens/flower. There are 4 ovules/flower and pollen – ovule ratio is 990: 1. There is no fruit set in bagged inflorescence indicating cross pollinating nature. Fruit and seed set percentage is very low. Apis cerana indica and Apis dorsata (Honey bee) and butterflies (Pieris spp.) are most effective pollinator.

Keywords : Apis cerana indica, Apis dorsata, Pieris, protandrous
Volume : 8 Journal Volume-8, Number-2, July, pp-208-210, 2016 Download PDF
  Floral biology of Ceiba speciosa (A. St.-Hil.) Ravenna (Malvaceae)

Seema Chauhan
Academy of Life Sciences, 8/13 I Kaushalpur, Bye Pass Road, Agra-282005, India

Received: 15.10.2014; Revised: 01.05.2016; Accepted and publisged on line: 01.07.2016



Floral biology of Ceiba speciosa syn. Chorisia speciosa (Malvaceae) was recorded during a period of two years (2013-2014).It is a large tree with palmately compound leaves which fall during the months of November and December followed by mass production of colourful large flowersin the month of December and continues till the end of March. Flowers consist of five light green sepals, five large colourful petals, monoadelphous with a staminal tube enclosing long style terminating into a five-lobed stigma. Fruit is a loculicidal pear shaped capsule with large number of seeds covered with silky foss. Purple sunbird (Cinnyris asiaticus), honey bees (Apis dorsata) and butterflies are the floral visitors. They visit the flowers for obtaining the copious nectar(142±25ml/flower) secreted by the corona and accumulated at the base of staminal tube. The nectar consists of 20-25% sucrose congenial for both sunbirds and honey bees in morning hours.
Keywords : Silk floss tree, honey bees, purple sunbirds, butterflies, corona.
Volume : 8 Journal Volume-8, Number-2, July, pp-211-214, 2016 Download PDF
  Floral phenology in Zanthoxylum armatum: a dioecious taxon

Renu Sharma and Namrata Sharma*
Department of Botany,University of Jammu, Jammu (J&K) -180006, India

*e-mail :*
Received : 01.02.2016; Accepted and Published on line: 01.07.2016


Zanthoxylm armatum DC. (Rutaceae), commonly called as Timur is an important ethnomedicianl shrub to a small tree species that forms natural strands in some regions of Jammu, J & K, India. Populations of this species were located at Jaganoo and Dhandaal areas of Udhampur and Bhaddu, Sukrala and Veerpur areas of Kathua, over an altitudinal range of 550-1100 masl. The plants were analysed for details of theirreproductive biology. Species turned out to be dioecious; thus each population was composed of separate male and female individuals. Males outnumber females in every population with the average ratio being (1.7:1). Flowering initiates in early March, when the average temperature of the area of occurrence fluctuates between 18-21°C.

Volume : 8 Journal Volume-8, Number-2, July, pp--215, 2016 Download PDF
  Floral phenology of Artemisia sieversiana Ehrh. ex Willd.: a temperate species

Rinchen Gurmet and Namrata Sharma
Department of Botany,University of Jammu, Jammu 180006, J&K, India.

*e-mail :*
Received : 20.06.2015; Revised: 01.07.2015; Accepted and published on line: 01. 07. 2015


L. is an important genus of family Asteraceae having a large number of taxa with both economic and ecological importance. Many species of the genus are very abundant and significant in a wide range of habitats. Almost every species of the genus Artemisia finds use as a source of medicine, food, forage or other useful products in one way or other. Artemisia sieversiana Ehrh. ex Willd. is one among these. The decoction of leaves and flowers of this species acts as wormicide and it is also a source of ‘siersin’ and ‘sieversinin’ having antimicrobial properties (Nazarenko and Leont’eva 1966). The chemical composition of Artemisia sieversiana essential oil has also been studied (Suleimenov et al. 2009).

Volume : 8 Journal Volume-8, Number-2, July, pp--216-217, 2016 Download PDF
Phenological Events in Cascabela thevetia (L) Lippold (Apocynaceae) in Delhi

Akanksha Madan and P. L. Uniyal*
Department of Botany,University of Delhi, Delhi – 110 007, India

*e-mail :*
Received : 23.09.2015; Revised: 01.11.2015; Accepted and published on line: 01.07.2016


Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippold [Syn. Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) K. Schum.] of Apocynaceae (Dogbane Family) is a perennial to evergreen shrub to upright small tree native to tropical Americas. It is also known to grow in wild in some disturbed mesic (moderately wet) areas. It is commonly known by several names such as yellow oleander, nerium oleander, lucky nut, be-still tree. It is known to be highly toxic bloom is seasonal, from summer to fall. However, in some warm places, it flowers throughout the year. In Delhi, the initiation of reproductive stage is marked by formation of bud primordia during the month of March.

Volume : 8 Journal Volume-8, Number-2, July, pp--218, 2016 Download PDF
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