The International Journal of Plant Reproductive Biology
(Indexed by CABI)
ISSN Print : 0975-4296; ISSN Online : 2249-7390
Volume-7, Number-2, July, 2015
  Diversity in the reproductive structures of Bryum Hedw. (Bryophyta) of Garhwal hills, Uttarakhand, India
Pooja Bansal & Virendra Nath*
Bryology Laboratory, CSIR – National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow – 226 001, India

Received: 20.07.2014; Revised: 20.04.2015; Accepted & Published online: 20.05.2015

Current status of genus Bryum Hedw. belonging to subfamily Bryoideae under family Bryaceae in Garhwal hills is being provided for the first time. The genus is represented by 23 taxa distributed in various localities of this region. The genus show worldwide distribution ranging from tropical to warm temperate regions. An insight on the species richness, their habitat preference with notes on ecology, distribution and details of the reproductive parts of taxa occurring in Garhwal hills have been given to update the current knowledge on this genus.

Keywords : Bryum, moss, morphotaxonomy, reproductive structures, Garhwal
Volume : 7(2) pp. 92 - 103, 2015 Download PDF

On homology of cells of reproductive and morphogenous structures

T. B. Batygina & J. V. Osadtchiy
Komarov Botanical Institute RAS, Saint Petersburg 197376, Russia

Received : 20.07.2014; Accepted & Published on line:


Reasoning from the putative commonness of evolutionary origin of morphogenetic developmental program intrinsic for sexual and certain somatic cells of plant organism the challenging issue is disputed on possible homology between these cell types. Performed during several years elaboration of main stem cell properties allowed considering the problem of integrity of morphogenous and reproductive processes at all stages of life cycle. The role of stem cells upon the switching over different morphogenetic developmental programs is revealed, which is underlain by two unique plant cell properties, the totipotency and stemness, causing the continuity of morphogenesis and polyvariancy of modes, forms of reproduction and morphogenesis pathways. The statement is expressed on the possibility of homologation of some stem and somatic cells with egg cell, “fertilized egg cell” and zygote. Such homologation is immediately related with functioning of the zygote as the initial cell of sexual embryo, taking into account that some stem and totipotent somatic cells can get the function of initial cells of embryoids in vivo and in vitro. Probably, it is possible to tell about the homology of initial cells in various systems of reproduction. The non-traditional notions are proposed on possibility to consider the zygote of higher plants as the homologue of somatic and stem cell. The zygote is the stem cell of the first order and gives rise in ontogenesis to all stem cells of subsequent orders. The all aforementioned contradicts to prevailed for long decades opinion on existence of the gap between somatic and stem cells, asexual and sexual reproduction.

Keywords : homology, morphogenetic developmental programs, totipotency, stemness, initial cells, zygote, embryoidogeny.
Volume : 7(2) pp. 104 - 112, 2015 Download PDF
  Analysis of anomalous Flowers of Alchemilla micans Buser (Rosaceae)

А.А. Notov & E.A. Andreeva
Faculty of Biology, Department of Botany, Tver State University, 170100 Tver,
Zhelyabova St. 33, 170100, RUSSIA
Received: 16.03.2015  Accepted and Published on line: 01.06.201


The frequency of anomalous flowers in Alchemilla micans reaches 0.9%, which is comparable to the prevalence of anomalous flowers in various years. Anomalous flowers with altered element structure are widespread (69.7%). Flowers with altered quantity and structure of elements are frequently formed (18.9%). General prevalence of flowers with altered element quantity reaches 30.3%. Other types of anomalies are much rarer (from 0.8 to 2.3%). Anomalous flowers are usually asymmetrical. The prevalence of anomalous flowers in Alchemilla micans is significantly lower that in Alchemilla monticola. This is determined by loose and multiflorous monochasiums in Alchemilla micans

Keywords :  Anomaly, teratology, flower, reproductive structures, Alchemilla micans, Rosaceae.
Volume : 7(2) pp. 113 - 119, 2015 Download PDF
  Pollination Biology of Costus woodsonii Maas (Costaceae)
P. Aswathi, K. Aswani & M. Sabu*
Taxonomy Division, Department of Botany, University of Calicut, Kerala - 673 635, India

Received : 09.10.2014; Revised: 14.01.2015; Accepted & Published online: 15.02.2015

Costus woodsonii is a perennial herb, belongs to the family Costaceae under the order Zingiberales. Inflorescence terminal, flowers emerge one at a time from bright red coloured bracts of inflorescence, flowers throughout the year. Anthesis occurs between 05:00–06:00 and the average life span of individual flower is 1 day. Anther dehiscence occurs between 03:00 and 03:30 through longitudinal slit. Flowers offer both nectar and pollen to visitors. Nectar secreted both in bract and flower. Pollen grains are polyporate and remains as viable still after 13 hours after anther dehiscence. Percentage of pollen viability is high at 07:00. High percentages of pollen grains are fertile (89.7 ± 0.8%) on the day of anthesis. In vitro pollen germination is found maximum in 1% of sucrose solution. Stigma becomes more receptive at 06:00 and stigma loss its receptivity after 15:00. Nectarinia asiatica, N. zeylonica are the main pollinators. Autogamy, geitonogamy and xenogamy were carried out, to check whether the species is self compatible or not. Fruit set on self pollinated flowers, revealed that C. woodsonii is self compatible.

Keywords : Pollination biology, Costus woodsonii, Nectarinia asiatica, Nectarinia zeylonica.
Volume : 7(2) pp. 120 - 127, 2015 Download PDF

Reproductive biology of Feronia limonia (L.) Swingle syn. Limonia acidissima (Rutaceae)

Seema Chauhan
Academy of Life Sciences, 8/13 I Kaushalpur Bye Pass Road, Agra-282005, India

Received : 13.08.2013; Revised: 23.01.2015; Accepted & Published on line: 01.05.2015


Feronia limonia (L.) Swingle syn. Limonia acidissima L. (Rutaceae) commonly known as wood-apple or elephant apple is a deciduous slow growing tree. Trees flower in April-June. The flowers arranged in terminal cymes bear yellow petals, 8-10 pink stamens with dark red anthers and pentacarpellary gynoecium. A nectariferous disk develops at the base of the ovary which is covered by large number of long tapering trichomes. Flowers are cross-pollinated in nature by honey bees (Apis cerana indica) showing facultative xenogamous breeding system. Fruits are berry, round, hard, woody; the rind is scurfy thick, with numerous small, white seeds. Seeds ripen in early October through March. 

Keywords : Elephant apple, breeding system, nectariferous disk
Volume : 7(2) pp. 128 - 134, 2015 Download PDF
  Systematic and adaptive significance of seed morphology in Crotalaria L. (Fabaceae)
Shweta Subramaniam, Arun K. Pandey* & Shabir A. Rather
Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007, India

Received : 15.05.2014; Revised: 06.02.2015; Accepted and published on line: 15.02.2015

Seeds of 38 species of the genus Crotalaria were collected and analysed for the variation in the shape, size, colour and spermoderm pattern. Statistical analyses were conducted for different variables to interpret the adaptive significance of different characters and correlation between the values obtained from the analyses. Positive correlations were observed between seed weight and seed length (r = +0.868), plant height and seed length (r = +0.68) and plant height and seed weight (r= +0.6). On the other hand, no correlation or less correlation (r = 0.11) was observed between the variables - number of seeds per pod and the seed length. The variations have adaptive significance and survival value for the species existing in different ecogeographical regions. Seed colour blends with the habitat and helps in escaping the predators. Seed size too has adaptive value; small seeds are adapted to margins of forest and grasslands where competition is less and hence they require little initial reserve food. Large seeded species colonize cut-slopes and regions with dense vegetation where the seed has to depend on the initial reserves of the cotyledons. Seed length and number of seeds per pod are not correlated since the food resources allocated for making the seeds depend on the ecological requirements and not on the number of seeds. Seed surface patterns are not of much taxonomic significance. However, C. nana var. nana and C. nana var. umbellata have pappillate spermoderm which is absent in other species investigated and supports the treatment of the two varieties as synonyms which is also evident from their morphologically overlapping characters.

Keywords : Seed, adaptation, colour, weight, aril, spermoderm pattern
Volume : 7(2) pp. 135 - 146, 2015 Download PDF
  Embryology of Taxillus heyneanus (Schult.f.) Danser (Loranthaceae)
P. Subrahmanyam1 G. RamaGopal1 & T. Pullaiah2
1Department of Botany, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati- 517502, India,
2Department of Botany, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur- 515003, India
Received : 18.01.2015; Revised :10.02.2015; Accepted and published on line : 01.04.2015

Embryology of Taxillus heyneanus (Schult.f.) Danser [Syn.: T. bracteatus (Heyne ex Roth) Tieghem], a member of the family Loranthaceae, has been studied. Anthers are tetrasporangiate. Male archesporium is hypodermal and consists of a row of 8-10 cells. Anther wall development is of the Dicotyledonous type. Anther wall consists of single layers of epidermis, endothecium, middle layer and glandular tapetum. Microspore mother cells undergo meiosis and form tetrahedral and decussate microspore tetrads. Cytokinesis is of the simultaneous type. The ovary lacks normal ovules. There is no placentum or mamelon in this plant. Female archesporium is multi-celled and subepidermal. Hypostase exists below the megaspore mother cells. Megaspore tetrad is linear; the chalazal megaspore is functional. Embryo sac development is of the Polygonum type. Embryo sac grows into the stylar canal. Embryo sac is 8-nucleate and 7-celled. Endosperm development is of the cellular type. The endosperm is composite. The zygote undergoes a vertical division followed by transverse divisions resulting in a biseriate proembryo which differentiates into an upper suspensor and lower embryo proper.

Keywords : Loranthaceae, Taxillus heyneanus, anther, microsporogenesis, megasporogenesis, embryo sac, endosperm, embryo
Volume : 7(2) pp. 147 - 152, 2015 Download PDF

Studies on Some Aspects of Reproductive biology of Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae)

Bishnu K Sharma & Ashok K Jain*
Institute of Ethnobiology, Jiwaji University, Gwalior (M.P.)-474011
*e-mail : &
Received : 26.01.2015; Revised: 17.03.2015; Accepted and Published online:  01.05.2015

Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees. (Acanthaceae) is an annual herb of medicinal importance. It is considered as a repository of a large number of active secondary metabolic compounds. Study on reproductive biology of A. paniculata is a crucial aspect for its successful conservation and obtaining good quality active compounds. The present paper reveals some observations on floral biology, pollination behavior and fruit biology of this species in the growing at Medicinal Plants Garden, Jiwaji University, Gwalior. Flowering commenced in second week of October and plants were in full bloom till third week of December and it continued for about 7-9 weeks till second week of March. Flowers open in the morning between 07:00-08:00. Anther dehisced between 09:30-11:00 and the bifid stigma became receptive between 11:00-13:00. The period of stigma receptivity coincides with anther dehiscence. Fruit set from hand pollination treatments was 35.42±4.17 % while seed set was 82.1±2.465 %. Observations are useful for conservation and development of better varieties of this multipurpose medicinal herb.

Keywords : Andrographis paniculata, floral biology, pollination biology and breeding systems
Volume : 7(2) pp. 153 - 158, 2015 Download PDF
  Pollination Biology of Rhododendron elliottii Watt ex Brandis (Ericaceae)

Imtilila Jing*1, Neizo Puro* & S.K. Chaturvedi2
*Department of Botany, Nagaland University, Lumami-798627, India
Department of Botany, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, Koni, Bilaspur-495009, India

Received: 16.01.2015; Revised: 28.05.2015; Accepted & Published online: 01.06.2015

Rhododendrons are classified as rare, endangered and threatened (RET) genus. It may be wiped out in near future from the biota, if proper management and conservation initiatives are not taken up. Studies on the reproductive biology of rhododendrons are essential for their ex situ/ in situ and in vitro conservation. Present study deals with flowering phenology, pollination biology, breeding system including pollen-ovule ratio, fruit and seed-set and viability of seeds in some marked plants of Rhododendron elliottii growing in its natural habitat at Khonoma Dzukou, Kohima district of Nagaland state (North- East India). The flowers are deep red coloured with darker flecks and protandrous and each flower lasting for 12.5±2 days. Anthers dehisce 24±2 h before the opening of floral buds and the pollen grains released are 82.65±5.5 percent viable. Stigma becomes receptive 3.8±1 days after anther dehiscence. The flowers are foraged by birds commonly known as ‘beautiful sibia’ (Heterophasia pulchella) and carpenter bees (Xylocopa spp.). These visitors pollinate the flowers while collecting nectar as is evident by the presence of pollen tetrads on the beak, forehead and neck of Heterophasia pulchella and by the presence of pollen attached on the dorsal and ventral surface of the thorax and abdomen of carpenter bees (Xylocopa sp.), indicating sterno-nototribic pollination. Rhododenron elliotti is self-compatible as the plants show high percentage of fruit- set in open pollinated flowers and exhibit facultative geitonogamy.

Keywords : Anthecology, sterno-nototribic, Heterophasia pulchella, Xylocopa spp., autogamous.


Volume : 7(2) pp. 159 - 164, 2015 Download PDF
  Pollen biology of Salvadora persica L. (Salvadoraceae)

Divya Sharma
Academy of Life Sciences, 8/13 I Kaushalpur, Bye Pass Road, Agra-282005, India


Received : 07.10.2014; Revised:05.02.2015; Accepted & Published online: 05.03.2015

Salvadora persica is a shrub or small evergreen perennial tree up to 7 meter in height. It is capable of growing under extreme conditions, from very dry environments to highly saline soils (Maggio et al. 2000). It belongs to the family Salvadoraceae of the order Brassicales, which comprises 3 genera witharound 12 species.
Keywords : Scanning Electron microscopy, in vitro, in vivo pollen germination.
Volume : 7(2) pp. 165 - 169, 2015 Download PDF
  Pollen morphology of two species of Dianthus (Caryophylaceae)

Sushma Sharma
Department of Botany, Ch. Charan Singh University, Meerut-250005, India


Received : Revised : 29.01.2015; Accepted and published on line



Pollen morphology of two species (D. barbatus L. and D. latifolius willd) has been studies using light (LM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The pollen grains were periporate, spheroidal and the exine of pollen of both the species was granular and spinulate.
Keywords : Caryophyllaceae, D. barbatus and D. latifolius, pollen morphology, acetolysis.
Volume : 7(2) pp. 170 - 173, 2015 Download PDF

Phenological events in Fumaria indica (Hauskn.) Pugsley – a medicinally important plant

Renuka Kumari & Namrata Sharma*
Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu- 180006, J&K, India

Received : 23.01.2015; Revised: 28.01.2015, Accepted and published on line : 1.02.2015

Fumaria (fumitory or fumewort, "smoke of the earth") is a genus of 50 species of annual flowering plants in the family Fumariaceae. The genus is native to Europe, Africa and Asia, most diverse in the Mediterranean region, and introduced to North and South America and Australia ( Lidén 1986). Fumaria.

Keywords : cleistogamous, in-situ germination, diadelphous, nut.
Volume : 7(2) pp. 174 - 176, 2015 Download PDF

Pollination of Anemopaegma album (Bignoniaceae) with focus on floral nectar as the mediator of interactions with mutualistic and antagonistic bees

Elza Guimarães1*, Anselmo Nogueira2, Catarina Gonçalves Dias Netto1 & Silvia Rodrigues Machado1
1. UNESP -Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Botânica, Caixa Postal 510, Botucatu, SP, 18618-970, Brazil
2. Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Botânica, Rua do Matão, 277, São Paulo, SP, 05508-090, Brazil

Received : 01.04.2015; Accepted and published on line: 01.06. 2105


We focused our study on the pollination of Anemopaegma album, a Bignoniaceae species from  a seasonally  dry habitat,  and on the features of primary attractive, the nectar, which mediate the interaction with mutualists and antagonists bees. We investigated the floral biology and identified pollinators and nectar robbers through field observations; we determined the mating system by performing controlled experiments; we described the floral structure with emphasis on the arrangement of reproductive structures and on the floral nectary and nectar chamber using scanning electron microscope for surface micromorphology and optical microscope for nectary histology; we monitored nectar production during the first day of anthesis and the weather conditions around plants. We registered medium and large-sized bees visiting A. album flowers throughout the daylight period acting as pollinators (Euglossini and Bombini) and as nectar robbers (Oxaea and Xylocopa). Plants from the focal population showed obligate outcrossing depending on bees for sexual reproduction; and flowers showed herkogamy mechanisms that favour outcrossing. The nectar chamber is formed by the constriction caused by the dilated basis of filets covered densely by trichomes and the nectary showed histological features related to the production of high amount of nectar in a short period. In fact, the highest volume of nectar is available when flowers open; after this, just small quantities are added along the day. The hottest and driest period was around midday, when just the nectar robber bee from genus Oxaea visited the flowers. Bees that  promote A. album outcrossing used diluted nectar as a floral resource and concentrated their visits during the morning when the highest volume of nectar was available and the weather conditions were more suitable.

Keywords : Male sterility, benzotriazole, surf excel, ethrel
Volume : 7(2) pp. 177 - 188, 2015 Download PDF

Observations on the presence of an aril in the seeds of Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. (syn. A. Agallocha Roxb.) (Thymelaeaceae)  growing in Meghalaya, North-east India

N. Venugopal*& Ester Jones Marbaniang**
Department of Botany, Centre of Advanced Studies in Botany, North Eastern hill University,
Shillong-793 022,India

Received : 31.03.2015; Accepted & Published on line: 30.04.2015


Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. (syn. A. agallocha Roxb.) is an economically important tree species for the production of agar wood. The species has been placed on Appendix II of CITES and belongs to the “Threatened” category of the IUCN Red List. The flowers are small, yellowish green and clustered on the leaf axis. The fruit capsules are bi-valved and the pericarp of the matured fruit split opened thereby the seeds are exposed. The seeds remain hanging upside down by a vasculature which usually is intact with the persistent funicle. During the sectioning of the plant materials, the authors came across the presence of an aril in the seeds of A. malaccensis and enwrap the seeds completely. The aril in this plant is true aril because it develops from the funicular part. The aril is soft and fleshly and contains several food reserves which supply food and nutrition to the developing seeds and is eaten by ants. For ants, arils are edible enticement and serve as bait for myrmecochorous dispersal.

Keywords : Agar wood, Aquilaria malaccensis Lam., aril, Myrmecochorous, Threatened.
Volume : 7(2) pp. 189 - 194, 2015 Download PDF
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