The International Journal of Plant Reproductive Biology
(Indexed by CABI)
ISSN Print : 0975-4296; ISSN Online : 2249-7390
Volume-7, Number-1, Jan, 2015
  Soil spore bank of Isoetes taiwanensis DeVol (Isoetaceae)
Yao-Moan Huang, Ya-Lan Chang & Wen Liang Chiou
1 Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, 53 Nan-Hai Rd., Taipei 10066, Taiwan.
2 Dr. Cecilia Koo Botanic Conservation Center, 31 Tongsing Rd., Gaoshu Township,
Ping-Tung 90646, Taiwan

@ tfri gov tw
Received: 11. 07. 2014; Revised:
20.08.2014; Accepted & Published in: 01.11.2014

The Dream Lake, located in the Yangmingshan National Park, northern Taiwan, is the only habitat of Isoetes taiwanensis DeVol. Because of the unstable condition of the habitat and the competition of associated plants, this species is evaluated as critically endangered according to the categories and criteria of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The soil with spores of I. taiwanensis wherein from different localities of the Dream Lake were sampled and cultured. The sporophytes of this species appeared after 20 days culture. Eighty two percent of young sporophytes produced in 50 days culture, and no sporophytes occurred after 80 days. The mean production time of young sporophyte was 43 days. More sporophytes of I. taiwanensis occurred from the soil of upper layers and central plots of the Lake. However, there is no significant difference among different layers and among different plots probably due to the mixing distribution of different-age spores by soil disturbance. This study indicates the possibility of conservation and restoration of this species by using its spores from the soil spore bank.

Keywords : Dream Lake, lycophyte, restoration, Taiwan, threatened plant.
Volume : 7(1) pp. 1 - 7, 2015. Download PDF
  Wonderful orchids-Non-traditional notions on reproduction
T. B. Batygina
Komarov Botanical Institute RAS, Saint Petersburg, Russia

Received: 07.06.2014; Accepted & Published online: 01.11.2014

From the viewpoint of non-traditional notions, the problem of integrity and reliability system is considered one of the main problems of biology. The unique plants, the orchids, are of the special interest for studying this problem. The especial attention must be paid to high totipotency and stemness of cells and diversity of modes of vegetative propagation. The orchids are the excellent model object for study of various aspects of developmental biology, particularly of the metamorphosis phenomenon in ontogenesis and its establishing in evolution. In this regard, some tropical (Cymbidium hybridum) and boreal (Dactylorhiza maculata, Hammarbia paludosa) orchids are considered. Some aspects of evolutionary processes in orchids are discussed, which are related with reduction of their vegetative and generative structures leading to change in behaviour of separate parts of plant. From the viewpoint of system approach and problem of integrity the attempt is done to discuss some approaches to symbiosis at different hierarchy levels and possible reasons of presence or absence of morphologically expressed fungus in the seed.

Keywords : Metamorphosis, reproduction systems, integrity and reliability system, apoptosis, protocorm–seedling,  generative and vegetative structures.
Volume : 7(1) pp. 8 - 31, 2015. Download PDF
  The Location of Anomalous flowers on flower-bearing stems of Alchemilla monticola Opiz (Rosaceae)
*А Notov & EA Andreeva
Faculty of Biology
, Department of Botany, Tver State University, 170100 Tver, Zhelyabova
St. 33, 170100, RUSSIA

Received: 06.10.2014; Revised: 16.01.2014; Accepted and Published on line: 26.10.2014

Alchemilla monticola form multiflorous thyrsae with a large number of orders of branching. Anomalous flowers with an increased number of elements are usually formed on the lower orders of branching. 2- and 3-membered flowers are formed more frequently at higher orders of branching. This distribution may be associated with a gradual decrease in the morphogenetic activity and sizes of floral apex at higher orders of branching.

Keywords : Teratology, reproductive structures, Alchemilla monticola, Rosaceae.
Volume : 7(1) pp. 32 - 38, 2015. Download PDF

Effect of micronutrient deficiency on pollen fertility and anther development in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)  

Anita Rana* & Jyoti Rathi
Academy of Life Sciences, Kaushalpur Bye Pass Road, Agra-282005, India

Received: 21.02.2014; Revised: 29.09.2014; Accepted and published on line 01.11.2014

Pollen fertility and anther development in Capsicum annuum L. plants grown hydroponically in the deficiency of boron, manganese and zinc was studied. Plants grown in the deficiency of Mn, Zn, Mn+Zn, Mn+B and Zn+B exhibited reduction in pollen fertility. Highest pollen fertility (72.5%) was observed in plants raised in nutrient medium containing all essential elements. On the other hand, least of pollen fertility (32.5%) was observed in plants raised in Zn and B deficient media, although anther development was more or less normal. In plants raised in Zn+Mn, Mn+B and Zn+B deficient conditions pollen fertility was 38.5%, 35.2% and 32.5% respectively and the anthers were indehiscent, exhibited tapetal abnormalities and a thick callose wall around microspore tetrads and deformed microspores. However, synthesis of sporopollenin and exine formation was not affected in the sterile pollen grains.

Keywords : Hydroponics, Boron, Zinc, Manganese, Tapetum, Callose, Sporopollenin
Volume : 7(1) pp. 39 - 47, 2015. Download PDF
  Reproductive biology of Alpinia mutica Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) with special reference to flexistyly pollination mechanism
Aswani K. & M. Sabu*
Taxonomy division, Department of Botany, University of Calicut, Kerala - 673 635, India

Received: 05.09.2014; Revised: 18.10.2014; Accepted and Published on line: 01.11.2014

The reproductive biology of Alpinia mutica Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) was studied at Botanical Garden, Calicut University, Kerala. Present communication deals with the floral biology, pollination mechanism, floral visitors and their visitation patterns, breeding system and reproductive success in this orchid ginger. It has two floral morphs namely, cataflexistylous and anaflexistylous which differ in flowering behaviour depending on the direction of stigma movement to avoid self pollination. It flowers throughout the year; with peak flowering during August to February. Seasonal variations affect on the flower size, anther dehiscence, floral visitors, pollinators and fruit setting. Anthesis occurs between 0500-0 530 h and a flower survives for 24 hours. Carpenter bee (Xylocopa sp.), Amegilla sp. and Tetragonula irridipennis are the effective pollinators. The seeds of A. mutica show vivipary.

Keywords : Orchid ginger, catafloxistylous, anaflexistylous, vivipary, Xylocopa sp.
Volume : 7(1) pp. 48 - 58, 2015. Download PDF
  Effect of high temperature on flowering pattern, pollen germination and pod setting in green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek)
M. Alagu Palamuthir Solai , C. Vijayalakshmi & P.S. Basu
Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur-208024, Uttar Pradesh, India
Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

Received: 18.09.2014; Revised: 28.10.2014; Accepted and published on line 05.11.2014

Flower and pod retention pattern and its relationship with yield in four green gram cultivars were assessed for high temperature tolerance at the Indian Institute of Pulses Research Kanpur, India in the year of 2012. Higher heat stress (>40 C) during the reproductive period adversely affected yield in green gram (Vigna radiata). A large number of flowers at different stages of development abscise due to high temperature resulting in the reduction of yield in this crop. Heat tolerant cultivars, namely SAMRAT and IPM 02-3 produced higher number of flowers and pods. On the other hand, reverse trends were observed in the heat susceptible cultivars, namely VBN (Gg) 2 and VBN (Gg) 3 under high temperature stress. Present study revealed that the genotypes with early flowering showed higher extent of setting pods and retaining them till maturity. On the other hand, higher night temperature during flowering period enhanced floral abscission. Under high temperature stress nearly 62.4 % flowers abscised during the night as compared to that in the day. Heat tolerant cultivars showed higher pollen viability under higher temperature stress.  

Keywords : Green gram, heat stress, Flowering pattern, pollen germination, pod retention pattern
Volume : 7(1) pp. 59 - 66, 2015. Download PDF
  Reproductive biology of Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt, a dioecious vegetatively propagated cucurbit: evidence for facultative apomixis
T. J. Shaina & S. Suhara Beevy
Department of Botany, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Kerala, India
Received: 16.06.2014; Revised: 03.11.2014; Accepted and published on line: 05.11.2014

Coccinia grandis, a dioecious cucurbit, is characterized by the presence of a pair of sex chromosomes. It exhibits both sexual and asexual modes of reproduction. Phenological observations revealed that production of flowers and fruits occur throughout the year, although the highest rate of production was noticed during the summer. Flowering pattern showed a staminate biased ratio typical of dioecious plants. Pollen characterization of male accessions revealed numerous viable pollen grains while anthers of morphologically perfect flowers possessed malformed pollen grains clumped together in the sporangium. The presence of rudimentary stamens at various stages of development was also observed during morphological characterization of the accessions. These characteristics may reflect an intermediate stage in the evolution from hermaphroditism to dioecy, suggesting that sexual dimorphism may be a relatively recent phenomenonin C. grandis. The study of breeding systems revealed that open pollination was the most effective method  in terms of fruit set and seed set both in the cultivated and wild accessions. Fruit set observed in the unpollinated flowers indicate the apomictic nature of the species. Occurrence of apomixis along with sexual reproduction suggests the operation of facultative apomixis in C. grandis.

Keywords : Coccinia grandis, dioecy, pollen grains, facultative apomixis
Volume : 7(1) pp. 67 - 77, 2015. Download PDF
  Biotic Pollination in Rhynchostylis retusa (L.) Bl. (Orchidaceae)
Bhaskar Buragohain*, S. K. Chaturvedi** & N. Puro
*Department of Botany, Nagaland University, Lumami, Nagaland- 798 627, India
* Department of Botany, Bilaspur- 495009, India

Received: 25.07.2014; Revised: 03.11.2014; Accepted and Published on line: 15.11.2014

Rhynchostylis retusa (L.) Bl. an economically important orchid of North East India is sold in the market during Bihu festival in Assam for ornamental purposes. Studies on the modes of pollination in R. retusa were made in its natural habitat at the Hollangapar Gibbon wild life sanctuary in Jorhat district of Assam state as well as in its cultivated form at Nutan Mati in Mariani, Jorhat district, Assam. The flowers of R. retusa are regularly foraged by various insects e.g. ants, beetles, bees and butterflies for sweet nectar, but two species of genus Xylocopa, viz., X. violacea L. and X. aestuans L. were the biotic pollinators. The purple colour, sweet fragrance and the sweet nectar of flowers are the only attractants for the visitors and pollinators, and help in biotic pollination. The anthecological study revealed that the transfer of pollinaria from anthers to the receptive surface of stigma of the flowers of the same inflorescence and/ or of the different inflorescence takes place by the forehead of the pollinators. Thus, the mode of biotic pollination in R. retusa is "Frontotribic".

Keywords : Rhynchostylis retusa, Xylocopa violacea, X. aestuans, Nectar, attractants, frontotribic,
Volume : 7(1) pp. 78 - 83, 2015. Download PDF
  HPLC analyses of phenolics in the stigma of fruit bearing and fruitless trees of Kigelia pinnata (Jacq.) DC. syn K. africana (Lamk.) Benth.
Anita Rana & *Seema Chauhan
Academy of Life Sciences, 8/13 I Kaushalpur Bye Pass Road, Agra-282005, India
Received: 07.07.2014; Revised: 10.08.2014; Accepted and Published online: 01.11.2014

HPLC analyses of phenolics in the stigma of fruit bearing and fruitless plants of Kigelia pinnata syn. K. africana (Bignoniaceae) was made. The HPLC chromatograms showed higher peaks and higher number (9) phenolic compounds in the stigmas of fruitless plants at Agra. On the other hand, the peaks were low and there were only 8 and 7 phenolics in the stigmas of fruit bearing trees at Jammu and Dehra Dun respectively. The quantity of phenolic compounds in the fruitless plants was significantly higher as compared to that in the fruit bearing plants. Presence of higher number of phenolics and their higher quantity in the stigmas of fruitless plants inhibit pollen germination and render the plants fruitless at Agra.

Keywords : Bignoniaceae, phenolics, HPLC, pollen germination.          

Volume : 7(1) pp. 84 - 87, 2015. Download PDF
  Phenological studies in Litchi chinensis Sonn. (Sapindaceae)
Seema Chauhan
Academy of Life Sciences, 8/13 I Kaushalpur Bye Pass Road, Agra-282005, India

Received: 01.07. 2014; Revised: 25.07.2014; Accepted and Published on line: 10.08.2014

Litchi chinensis Sonn is the only species of the genus Litchi of family Sapindaceae. It is native of China and an important tropical and subtropical fruit treed. It has been widely cultivated for its prized fruit even before 1766 B.C. (Menzel 1984). The litchi is cultivated in China, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, Japan, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, some parts of Southern Africa and many other parts of the world (Morton 1987).

Keywords : male, female, hermaphrodite flowers, honeybee, aril, self-incompatible
Volume : 7(1) pp. 88 - 90, 2015. Download PDF
  Stephania rotunda (Menispermaceae)
C S Bewli*
165, Sector 36-A, Chandigarh-160036, India

Received: 01.08.2014; Accepted and Published on line: 01.10.2014


Stephania is a genus of flowering plants in the family Menispermaceae, native to eastern and southern Asia and Australasia. They are herbaceous perennial vines growing to around four metres tall, with a large, woody caudex(Fig.1). The Indian caudiform Stephania rotunda is found growing in the mountanious region of Himachal Pradesh and during rainy season. They can be spotted in the river streams due to landslides.
Volume : 7(1) pp. 91, 2015. Download PDF
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