The International Journal of Plant Reproductive Biology
(Indexed by CABI)
ISSN Print : 0975-4296; ISSN Online : 2249-7390

Volume-6, Number-2, July, 2014

Pollination system in two widely occurring vetches- Vicia hirsuta (L.) Gray and V. sativa L.

Uzma Hamal* & Namrata Sharma
Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu-180 006, J&K, India.

Received: 07. 11.2013; Revised: 23.01.2014; Accepted & Published on line: 01.02.2014
Two species of the genus Vicia L., namely V. hirsuta (L.) Gray and V. sativa L., forming allopatric as well as sympatric populations in North-west Himalaya, have been investigated. Plants of both the species reproduce only sexually and are prolific flower producers. They complete their life-cycle in a short span of 3-3.5 months. Although flowers in both the species are papilionaceous, V. hirsuta has small, dull white flowers while V. sativa has comparatively large and bright pink flowers. Flowering phenology of the two species reveals V. hirsuta to be slightly protogynous and V. sativa to be protandrous. However, lack of insect visits disables V. hirsuta to harvest the benefits of dichogamy. On the other hand, V. sativa enjoys the benefits of both self- and cross-pollination. A common feature favouring selfing in the species is the occurrence of in-situ pollen germination. The present paper discusses multiple pollination pathways that these two annuals adopt in order to ensure reproductive efficiency in their short life span.
Keywords : Herbivory, in-situ pollen germination, papilionaceous corolla, patchy distribution, protandry, protogyny, stylar  
Volume : 6(2) pp. 111 - 121, 2014 Download PDF

Reproductive biology of Panax wangianus (Araliaceae): a critically endangered medicinal plant

N. Venugopal* & Preeti Ahuja
Plant Anatomy and Reproductive Biology Laboratory, Department of Botany,
North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong-793022, Meghalaya, India

Received: 20.11.2013; Revised: 06.03.2014; Accepted & Published on line: 07.06.2014

Panax wangianus (Syn. Panax pseudoginseng) S. C. Sun (Araliaceae) is a critically endangered, medicinal plant of north-east India. Present investigation was undertaken to obtain information on the phenology, pollination and breeding behavior of Panax wangianus S. C. Sun growing in Nongkrem sacred forest. This will be useful in developing recommendations for the conservation of this intensively collected medicinal herb. Number of pollen grains/ flower, pollen: ovule ratio, pollen germination, pollen tube growth, stigma receptivity, pollinators, breeding system and fruit/seed dispersal mechanism in P. wangianus have been investigated. Flowers are small, hermaphrodite, odor-less with one to five styles. The total number of pollen grains in one flower of P. wangianus ranges from 2000 to 2500, out of which 43 percent pollen grains are viable and 57 percent are nonviable. The large cluster of pollen grains with viscin threads in P. wangianus is the first report in thefamily Araliaceae. Pollen grains are tricellular, tricolpate with reticulate sculpturing. P. wangianus exhibited reverse herkogamy which enhances the chances of cross-pollination by the bees and flies belonging to family Halictidae and Syrphidae respectively.

Keywords : Breeding behavior, Panax wangianus S. C. Sun, pollination mechanism.

Volume : 6(2) pp. 122 - 128, 2014 Download PDF


Morphological and histochemical studies on trichomes on different parts of Boerhavia diffusa L.

*Gulshan Chaudhary & Prem Kumar Dantu**
Department of Botany, Dayalbagh Educational Institute (Deemed University),
Dayalbagh, Agra 282110, Uttar Pradesh, India

Received: 29.06.2013; Revised: 30.11.2013; Accepted & Published on line: 12.12. 2013


Boerhavia diffusa (Nyctaginaceae) rich in several secondary metabolites is recommended for various ailments in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Present study reveals that the medicinal properties of this plant are largely due to presence of digitiform and capitate trichomes on both vegetative and reproductive parts. These trichomes secret alkaloids, phenols, polysaccharides, proteins, saturated and unsaturated lipids. Present study deals with the morphological (LM and SEM) and histochemical studies on the trichomes in B. diffusa. The capitate trichomes were recorded on the surface of ovaries and apocarps only. Trichomes present on the surfaces of younger parts provide biotic and abiotic protection.

Keywords : Capitate, digitiform, trichomes, light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, histochemical tests

Volume : 6(2) pp. 129 - 138, 2014 Download PDF


Floral biology, Pollination and Breeding system in Alcea rosea (L.) syn.Althaea chinensis Wall. (Malvaceae)

Alpna Johri* & R. K. Raghuvanshi**
*Botany Department, Government J. D. B. Girls College, Kota-324002 Rajasthan, India
**Botany Department, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur-302001, Rajasthan, India.

* & **
Received: 05.04.2014; Revised: 07.06.2014; Accepted & Published online: 08.06.2014


Present communication deals with the floral biology, pollination and breeding system in Alcea rosea (L.) syn. Althaea chinensis Wall. (Malvaceae). It is annual, biennial, or perennial plant usually erect, unbranched and about 1-3 m tall. Inflorescence primordia develop in the first week of January and flower buds start opening during the first week of February. The full bloom occurred in the second week of March and lasted until the end of April. Inflorescence is a spike-like raceme and axillary solitary flowers are also produced from the axils of the upper leaves. Flowers are pentamerous with a columnar structure in the center with numerous stamens which coalesce with filaments, constituting a staminal tube which encloses the gynoecium with thread-like stigmas at the tip. Stamens are monadelphous, anthers reniform, and monothecous. Gynoecium consists of numerous fused carpels with a disk-like ovary and stigma in equal number to the carpels. Anthesis occurred 28±4 days after initiation of bud at 1200 h. The flowers are protandrous and the anthers dehisced by longitudinal slit a day before anthesis. The number of pollen grains in each anther is 94.2±2.7. Pollen viability is 88.2±12.5%. Pollen grains are echinate and dimorphic. The number of ovules/flower are 30.8±5.5 (n=25) and the pollen ovule ratio is 952:1. The flowers are often visited by various pollinating insects. The most frequent visitors are carpenter bee (Xylocopa spp.) and honeybees (Apis cerena indica). They visit to extract nectar and bring about pollination also. Small black ants (Formica spp.), red cotton bug (Dysdercus koengii) and butter flies [Graphium doson (C. & R. Felder) and Graphium chironides (Honrath)] also visit flowers, but they are nectar robbers only. The stigma becomes receptive after 45±5 h of anthesis and remains receptive for 24±2 h. Fruit set percentage in open pollinated flowers is 93±5; by self-pollination (unemasculated and bagged flowers) it is 25.3±5.2% with 0.44 self incompatibility index. Fruit set percentage was 43.6±8.2 and 56.4±14.2 by getinogamy and xenogamy respectively. Thus, Alcea rosea is predominantly out-crossing but in the absence or scarcity of pollinators it produces fruits by selfing also.

Keywords : Alcea rosea (Linn.) syn. Atlthea chinensis, Phenology, Pollination, breeding system.

Volume : 6(2) pp. 139 - 144, 2014 Download PDF

  Non-traditional Notions on Plant Architecture

T. B. Batygina
Komarov Botanical Institute RAS, Saint Petersburg, Russia

Received: 02.04.2014
; Revised:


The issues of evolution of form, organization and architecture of living organism, its developmental periodicity and cyclicism are discussed from the viewpoint of modern data. The especial attention is paid to the one of the most important problems in biology, the problem of integrity and switching over the morphogenetic developmental programs in ontogenesis and life cycle. The main conceptions are considered concerning the evolution of structural plan of vascular plant sporophyte's body, which gave rise to the diversity of structures caused by the different character of apical and axillary meristems growth.

In the context of the issue on distinguishing of two classes of angiosperms and revealing the mechanisms of evolutionary transformation of their embryos the morphogenesis of first stages of plant development is discussed. The hypotheses on the morphogenetic nature of the cotyledons and origin of the monocotyly are analyzed, which are the most promising for further clarification of origin of these plant groups. The possible modes of transformation of sexual embryo in course of the monocotyly establishing and homologation of its structures in various taxa are discussed in the connection with the conception on the classification of embryogenesis types. The mechanisms of establishing of these types and of the organism integrity are considered, including ecological, ethological and genetic aspects

Keywords : Architecture, problem of integrity, switching over morphogenetic developmental programs, monocotyly, pathways and modes of organism formation.

Volume : 6(2) pp. 145 - 164, 2014 Download PDF


Morphological Analysis of Anomalous Flowers of Alchemilla monticola Opiz (Rosaceae)

Notov* & E. A. Andreeva
Faculty of Biology, Department of Botany, Tver State University, 170100 Tver, Zhelyabova St. 33
170100, RUSSIA

Received: 03.03.2014; Revised: 29.03.2014; Accepted & Published on line: 07.06.2014

The frequency of anomalous flowers in plants of Alchemilla monticola scored for the purpose was 26.3%. There was no connection between weather conditions and the frequency of anomaly and distribution of the variants. Anomalous flowers were classified into the following main groups: with altered numbers, structure, placement of floral parts or concrescence and homeotic variants. Combinations of various types are also quite common. Anomalous flowers with altered numbers and structure of floral parts and combinations of these types are more common than others. Anomalous flowers are usually asymmetric. The epicalyx structure is most unstable. The calyx and androecium exhibit moderate level of variability. The gynaeceum structure is comparatively stable.
Keywords : Anomaly, teratology, flower, reproductive structures, classification, Alchemilla monticola, Rosaceae.

Volume : 6(2) pp. 165 - 173, 2014 Download PDF


Nectar Sugar Composition and Flower Visitors for the Naturalized Exotic Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) at Central Argentina

Carolina Torres & Leonardo Galetto1
Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (UNC-CONICET), Casilla de Correo 495, 5000 Córdoba, Argentina. Cátedra de Diversidad Vegetal II, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales,
Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina.

Received: 04.06.2014; Accepted & Published online: 14.06.2014

The aim of this work is to describe and quantify the flower visitors of the invasive Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) at the Chaco forest, and to analyze possible relations between nectar sugar composition and the main pollinators for this species. Volumes of nectar and sugar concentration were measured in six different populations of the naturalized exotic L. camara in Central Argentina. Quantitative nectar sugar composition was determined and compared between populations. In general, nectar sugar concentration ranged between 25-28% and volume per flower was very low (<1μL). Nectar sugars are glucose, fructose and sucrose for all populations, but hexoses clearly predominate over sucrose. Different insects were registered visiting the inflorescences. The more frequent pollinators were many species of diurnal butterflies, honeybees and bumblebees. A diverse insect assemblage visiting flowers of L. camara guarantees a high fruit production which can be related to the invasion process of this species in the Chaco region from Central Argentina.

Keywords : Nectar sugar composition, butterflies, bumblebees, honeybees, invasive species
Volume : 6(2) pp. 174 - 180, 2014 Download PDF
  Pollination biology of Terminalia chebula Retz. in Delhi and Western Ghats
S. Talwar & A. K. Bhatnagar*
Environmental Biology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi – 110 007, India
*e-mail :
Received: 29.05.2014; Revised: 11.07.2014; Accepted and Published online: 15.07.2014

Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae), a deciduous tree of high economic value, finds its use in pharmaceutical and leather industry. Overexploitation and poor regeneration have led to its sparse distribution in nature. The present study has been undertaken with an objective to understand and compare the pollination biology of the tree in its native habitat at Dapoli (Maharashtra) and a few trees planted in Delhi. The tree flowers from March to May in Dapoli and from May to July in Delhi. Flowers are bisexual, pale yellow, actinomorphic, epigynous and arranged in dense spikes. Floral nectaries are present at the base of style. Anthesis begins at night with the style emerging out before the stamens. A flower has two phases: (1) female phase when stigma is receptive; (2) bisexual phase, when stigma remains receptive and anthers mature and dehisce. Such a type of mechanism is known as incomplete protogyny. Anther dehiscence is asynchronous, facilitating cross pollination. The tree is entomophilous with a wide variety of insects visiting the flowers. The major pollinators of Terminalia chebula are Apis dorsata, Apis cerana-indica, Polistes hebraeus, Vespa orientalis and Eristalinus sp. Diversity has been observed in pollinators visiting the flowers at Dapoli and Delhi. Results of breeding experiments show that plant is self- as well as cross-pollinated. Self-pollination too can occur only with the help of external agents as anthers and stigma are spatially separated. However, cross-pollination is more prevalent.

Keywords : Conservation biology, Floral mechanism, Pollination biology, Terminalia chebula
Volume : 6(2) pp. 181 - 194, 2014 Download PDF
  Tuber formation in Conocephalum conicum (L.) Underw.
*Anu Sharma & Anima Langer
Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu-180006, J & K, India

Received: 17.06.2014; Revised: 28.06.2014; Accepted & Published online: 29.06.2014

The present study deals with tubers in Conocephalum conicum, an asexual reproduction type. Asexual modes of reproduction in this taxon need to be studied since the genus is facing problems in sexual reproduction. The finding of tubers in C. conicum is first record from India.

Keywords :Threatened, tubers, dioecious, perennate, dormancy..

Volume : 6(2) pp. 195 - 198, 2014 Download PDF

Floral phenology of Quercus baloot Griff. in temperate regions of Jammu province.

Upvan Bhushan* Eshan Sharma & Namarta Sharma**
Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu- 180006, J&K, India.

Received: 05.06.2014

Quercus baloot Griff. commonly called as Holy oak or Holm oak is an evergreen endemic tree species restricted to Afghanistan, Pakistan and India (International Oak society, Report from the oak ICAR checklist). The tree is widely used as a source of fuel wood, for making agricultural implements and for carpentry work. Species forms dense stands in some regions of Jammu and Kashmir State including the site of present study. (Bhaderwah, District Doda, 1604 msl (N 33º06.O48´ E075º35.919´). This area experiences wide temperature fluctuations ranging from a minimum of 1°C during the winter month of December- January to a maximum of 30°C during June – July. Plants in the area also remain snow covered for few days (15-30) each year.

Quercus baloot
is monoecious with buds initiating in the 2nd -3rdweek of april, when the day temperature in the area fluctuates between 20-24°C. Male flower initiate first the plant, species is thus protandrous. They are borne in catkins, with number of flowers /catkin averaging 30.96. Catkins differentiate in clusters of 5-6 on old branches of tree. Mature male flowers are light yellow to green in color, bear 5-6 tepals and variable no. of stamens (8-12). All the flowers of catkin do not open and dehisce simultaneously; they take 2-3 days to do so with the opening following a basipetal or an acropetal succession. Peak dehiscence is observed during noon hours between 11:30 am to 2 pm.

Keywords : Quercus baloot, monoecious, catkin, cupule, acron.
Volume : 6(2) pp. 199 - 200, 2014 Download PDF
  Phenology of Ornithogalum caudatum Syn. O. longebracteatum (Hyacinthaceae) & Bowiea volubilis (Liliaceae) a leafless wonder

*C S Bewli
36 A Sector, Chandigarh-160036, India

Received : 26.03.2014



Ornithogalum is a genus of perennial plants mostly native to southern Europe and southern Africa. It belongs to the family Liliaceae but some taxonomists have placed it under Asparagaceae or Hyacinthaceae. There are about 180 species of which the best known are O. umbellatum, O. saundersiae, O. arabicum, O. thyrosides and O. caudatum. Some of the plants in the genus are poisonous and have been known to kill grazing animals.

Bowiea volubilis (Liliaceae/Hyacinthaceae) commonly known as the climbing onion is an unusual bulbous house plant with a tight swollen spherical base made up of many overlapping scales (Fig. 1). It is a very slow growing. At maturity of 5-6 years some bulbs tend to split and produce smaller bulbs to form clumps. During winters when in dormancy, the outer scales shrivel and turn brown and assume paper-like epidermis as that of an onion.
Keywords : Endangered, floral phenology, pollen viability, aborted ovules.
Volume : 6(2) pp. 201 - 203, 2014 Download PDF
  Seed to Seed phenology of Emex australis Steinh.
Deepak Gupta* & Veenu Kaul
Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu-180006, India

Received: .07.2014 Revised:11.07.2014 Accepted and Published on line: 15.07.2014

Emex australis Steinh. (Polygonaceae) is a common weed found growing in more than 30 countries of the world including India (Sharma & Jamwal 1987). In Jammu and Kashmir, plants of this species grow luxuriantly in and around waste lands of Jammu region (Sharma & Jamwal 1987, Bala & Kaul 2011). Plants are autumn-winter germinating annuals typically associated with disturbed environments. Life cycle is short and completed within 5 to 6 months. Germination of seeds is staggered and occurs throughout the growing season provided the conditions are favourable.

Keywords : Annual, weed, Emex, monoecious, trigonous, seed, Jammu
Volume : 6(2) pp. 204 - 206, 2014 Download PDF
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