The International Journal of Plant Reproductive Biology
(Indexed by CABI)
ISSN Print : 0975-4296; ISSN Online : 2249-7390

Volume-6, Number-1, Jan, 2014
  Hybrid Origin of Nephrolepis ×hippocrepicis Miyam. (Nephrolepidaceae)

Tzu Tong Kao1, Wen Liang Chiou1, Sheng Yuan Hsu1, Chun-Ming Chen2,
Yi-Shan Chao1 & Yao Moan Huang 1*

1 Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, 53 Nan-Hai Rd., Taipei 10066, Taiwan
2Dr. Cecilia Koo Botanic Conservation Center, 31 Tongsing Rd.,
Gaoshu Township, Ping-Tung 90646, Taiwan

Received: 10. 05. 2013; Revised & Accepted: 23.06.2013; Published online: 01.10.2013

Plants of Nephrolepis ×hippocrepicis Miyam. found in the Taipei Botanical Garden, northern Taiwan, were characterized by mostly aborted and a few abnormally large-sized spores, closelyadjoining lanceolate triangulate pinnae, reniform indusia, and bi-colored basal scales with caudate apexes. These characters and C-value of N. ×hippocrepicis are intermediate between those of N. biserrata and N. cordifolia. Its bidirectional interspecific hybrid origins between N. biserrata and N. cordifolia have been identified based on the DNA sequences of a chloroplast region atpB-rbcL spacer and two nuclear regions CAS1 (cycloartenol synthase 1) and gapCp (glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) genes. Its spore germination rate was less than 1% and none of the gametophyte produced young sporophyte. Instead of sexual reproduction, the species is likely to propagate through runners and new hybridization events.
Keywords : Hybrid, Nephrolepis biserrata, Nephrolepis cordifolia, Nephrolepis ×hippocrepicis
Volume : 6(1) pp. 1 - 14, 2014 Download PDF
  Studies on Reproductive Biology of Microsorum alternifolium Copel.

Ruchi Srivastava*, P. L. Uniyal & B. S. Kholia**
Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi- 110007, India.
**Botanical Survey of India, Gangtok- 737103, Sikkim, India

: *
Received: 30.07.2013; Revised & Accepted: 02.08.2013; Published Online: 01.10.2013


Microsorum alternifolium is a threatened fern of the family Polypodiaceae. Present paper deals with the events of spore germination, gametophyte growth and differentiation, ontogeny of sex organs and development of sporophytes in in vitro conditions. Spore germination and prothallial development is of Vittaria-type and Drynaria-type, respectively. Frequency of sporophyte production was 44% in composite gametophyte populations, while no sporophytes were produced in isolate population. Since M. alternifolium was found to have no capacity to form sporophyte through intra-gametophytic selfing, it is not a pioneer colonizer in barren land. Instead, it reproduces by inter-gametophytic selfing and also possibly by crossing. The main cause of rarity could be genetic barriers and over exploitation for economic purposes. Conservation of this taxon in the natural habitat is urgently required.

Keywords : Homosporous fern, Microsorum alternifolium, prothallus growth, reproductive biology, threatenedfern

Volume : 6(1) pp. 15 - 19, 2014 Download PDF

  Characteristics of Reproductive Strategies in Wild Garlic (Allium ursinum L.)

Tamás Morschhauser1, Szilvia Stranczinger 1, Kinga Rudolf 1 Ágnes Farkas 2
1Department of Plant Systematics and Gebotany, University of Pécs, Ifjúság u. 6., 7624 Pécs, Hungary,
2Institute of Pharmacognosy, University of Pécs, Rókus u. 2., 7624 Pécs, Hungary


Received: 6.2.2013; Revised & Accepted: 29.08.2013; Published online: 01.10.2013


The life cycle and phenology of wild garlic (Allium ursinum L.), an important medicinal plant and valuable food source, has been reviewed, putting emphasis on resource allocation in various phenological stages. The plant is known to rely on both sexual and clonal reproductive strategies. The extremely large allocation into flower, and particularly seed formation, underlines the importance of sexual reproduction for wild garlic. Pollinators, mainly honey bees and bumble bees, attracted both by pollen and nectar, play a key role in successful sexual reproduction. Nectar volumes and concentrations vary with flower age, and also between populations at different habitats, affected by microclimatic conditions and soil properties. In the course of clonal reproduction, the bulbs of daughter ramets develop directly next to the mother plant, maintaining physical, and for a short period even physiological interconnections (Clan-of-Clones strategy). As a consequence of the above strategies, a wild garlic population at a given habitat can be characterised by a diverse genetic composition, both in space and time. Our preliminary molecular study revealed that members of the same clone do not exhibit any variability in their RAPD patterns; but with growing distance from the clan, polymorphic fragments appear in the sampled individuals. These results suggest that modern molecular techniques can be applied for investigating the actual habitat location of genetic patterns.

Keywords : clonal plant, nectar, pollinator, ramet, ramson, RAPD, sexual reproduction

Volume : 6(1) pp. 21 - 29, 2014 Download PDF


The effect of fast neutron radiation on meiosis in pollen mother cells of Capsicum annuum var. abbreviatum

Olamide Ahmed Falusi*, Oladipupo Abdulazeez Yusuf Daudu, Kolo Josephine Teni & Thomas Tanko
Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria
Received: 10.07.2013 Revised & Accepted: 06. 08.2013; Published online: 01.10.2013


In order to assess the effect of fast neutron irradiation (FNI) on pmc meiosis of Capsicum anuum var abbreviatum, dry seeds of the variety were exposed to fast neutron irradiation (FNI) from an Americium Beryllium source with a flux of 1.5 × 104 s-1. Five irradiation treatments, 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. have been tried. The treated seeds were sown with their respective controls and the effects on the meiosis of the plants were studied. The results obtained showed that all irradiation treatments caused meiotic abnormalities, such as chromosome clumping, presence of univalents, multivalents, triads and micronuclei compared to the control plants. There was an increase in aberrant cells with increase in the duration of fast neutron irradiation (FNI); 120 minutes FNI treatment was found most potent in inducing cytological aberrations in pollen mother cells of treated pepper plants.

Keywords : C. annum var. abbreviatum, fast neutron, irradiation exposure period

Volume : 6(1) pp. 31 - 34, 2014 Download PDF


Quantification of phenotypic diversity in Allium sativum L. over a period of three years

Lakhvinder Singh & Veenu Kaul*
Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu–180006, Jammu & Kashmir, India.

Received: 21.05.2013; Revised & Accepted: 06.08.2013; Published online: 01.10.2013


Forty seven Indian collections were studied during 2007-09 to determine the extent of phenotypic variability in A. sativum. Eleven agronomically important morphological characters were quantified and, Shannon-Weaver and Simpson diversity indices calculated. Results obtained reveal a huge quantum of genetic diversity in the Indian gene pool. The information generated in the present study is a step towards more holistic characterization and documentation of diversity in the Indian garlic.

Keywords : Shannon-Weaver index, Simpson index, Genetic diversity.

Volume : 6(1) pp. 35 - 39, 2014 Download PDF

  Sexual variants in a dioecious taxon, Hippophae rhamnoides L.

Randeep Sen, Sonam Tamchos & Veenu Kaul*
Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu – 180006, India

Received: 30.07.2013; Revised & Accepted: 02.08.2013; Published online: 01.10.2013

Thirty populations of Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Elaeagnaceae) were scanned throughout Ladakh at different locations spanning Leh, Nubra and Kargil. A majority of them were dioecious with male and female sexes borne on separate individuals. Many populations from Leh consisted of a few plants which deviated from the dioecious sex expression. These variants were either monoecious or polygamomonoecious i. e. trimonoecious or trioecious. This is probably the first instance of a plant having flowers of three sex expressions in Hippophae rhamnoides.
Keywords : Hippophae rhamnoides L., Elaeagnaceae, sexual variants.

Volume : 6(1) pp. 41 - 43, 2014 Download PDF


Homeosis Variants of Reproductive Structure Anomalies of Geum rivale L. (Rosaceae)

А.А. Notov* & E.A. Andreeva
Faculty of Biology
, Department of Botany, Tver State University, 170100 Tver,
Zhelyabova St. 33, 170100, RUSSIA

Received: 25.09. 2013; Accepted: 16.10.2013; Published on line: 07.12.2013


Abnormal variants in reproductive structures of Geum rivale L. (Rosaceae) are described. Structures were identified as cases of complete or partial homeosis forms on flowers and flower-bearing stems. A monopodial-rosette model of shoot formation and the existence of gynophores in the flowers facilitate their appearance. The diversity of homeosis structures was analyzed and an approach to their classification is suggested.

Keywords : Teratology, proliferation, classification, monopodial rosette-forming plants.
Volume : 6(1) pp. 45 - 53, 2014 Download PDF

Rapid whole plant regeneration protocol of pea (Pisum sativum L.) for transformation experiment

Jai Singh Patel1, Padmanabh Dwivedi2, Mushtaq Ahmed1, Harikesh Bahadur Singh3 &
Birinchi Kumar Sarma3*

Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005; 2Department of Plant Physiology,
Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005; 3Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Banaras
Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India

Received: 26.06.2013; Revised: 29.9.2013; Accepted: 5.10.2013; Published on line: 07.12.2013


An efficient in vitro plant regeneration protocol has been optimized for pea using leaf tissues and nodal regions as explants. Various phytohormones [2, 4-D (2, 4-Dichloro phenoxy acetic acid), IBA (Indole Butyric Acid), BAP (Benzylaminopurine), IAA (Indole Acetic Acid), Kinetin, and NAA (Naphthalene Acetic Acid)] were tested in different concentrations and combinations and the best combinations identified for rapid organogenesis are reported. The leaf explants when placed on a phytohormonal combination of 2.1/2.1 mg/l of IBA/Kinetin developed vigorous callusing. However, shoot regeneration was highest in 2.3 mg/l kinetin from nodal explants and root regeneration from such shoots was highest when transferred to a medium containing 0.5 mg/l IBA. Interestingly, root regeneration was also induced directly from callus without shoot regeneration in the callusing medium when the calli were incubated in darkness for 7 days. By using the current protocol plantlets can be regenerated within 50 days which is a much shorter time period compared to the other protocols available for pea so far.

Keywords : Darkness, Friable callus, IBA, Kinetin, Plant regeneration, Rooting, Tissue culture
Volume : 6(1) pp. 55 - 59, 2014 Download PDF

Flower biology and compatibility system of Campsis grandiflora (Bignoniaceae)
in Uttar Pradesh, India

Seema Chauhan* & Archana Shakya
Academy of Life Sciences, 8/13 Kaushalpur Bye Pass Road, Agra-282005, India
Received: 09.05.2013; Revised: 16.10.2013; Published Online: 07.12.2013


The woody climber Campsis grandiflora (Bignoniaceae) is native in Eastern Asia, while its sister species, C. radicans, is native in eastern North America. Campsis radicans is self-incompatible and pollinated by hummingbirds, while the pollination and compatibility system of the Asia species have not been studied. A study on the pollination biology of C. grandiflora was therefore; undertaken on 25 plants in the gardens of Agra, Uttar Pradesh. It revealed that the species is highly protandrous and self-incompatible. The anthers dehisce just as the floral buds open and release viable pollen. The stigmatic lobes open in the afternoon at 1800 h by the time the pollen grains are no longer viable as assessed by 0.2% TTC solution, fluorochromatic reaction (FCR) test, and hanging drop culture methods. During diurnal observations, the flowers were visited by sunbirds (Nectarinia asiatica) and bees of Halictidae, Mellipona and Apis cerana indica that foraged for pollen and nectar in male-stage flowers. The birds perch at the base of the corolla to feed on nectar with their brush-tipped tubular tongues and touched the stigma and anthers with their foreheads. The bees visited the flowers mainly in the morning, and the halictids were too small to regularly contact stigmas. Hand pollination of receptive stigmas with large amount of pollen grains (geitonogamy and xenogamy) yielded fruits that contained, viable seeds, as did pollination with pollen from flowers of different individuals (xenogamy).

Keywords :Campsis grandiflora, self-incompatibility, protandrous, sunbirds, halictid bees, Mellipona spp.           

Volume : 6(1) pp. 61 - 74, 2014 Download PDF
  Embryology of Cucurbitaceae and Circumscription of Cucurbitales: A Review

Arun K. Pandey*, Mayank D. Dwivedi and Roshni R. Mathur
Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007

Received: 17.09.2013; Revised: 06.11.2013 Published on line: 07.12.2013


The literature on embryology of Cucurbitaceae may appear to be exhaustive but only c. 3 per cent of all the recognized genera have been investigated so far. In these Cucurbitaceae, the bi- or tetrasporangiate anthers are usually with a layer of epidermis, fibrous endothecium, 2-3 ephemeral middle layers and Secretory tapetum. Cytokinesis is simultaneous and microspores are arranged in tetrahedral, isobilateral and decussate manner. Pollen grains are shed at 2 or 3-celled stage. The ovules are anatropous, bitegmic and crassinucellate. The female archesporium is one to multi-celled and the embryo sac development is of Polygonum type. Fertilization is porogamous. Endosperm development is of Nuclear type. The chalazal endosperm haustorium varies in size from rudimentary to a long coenocytic organ and may remain either coenocytic forever or becomes partly or completely cellular in some cucurbits. The embryogeny corresponds to Onagrad, Asterad or Solanad type. Seed coat is formed by outer integument alone and comprises epidermis, hypodermis, main sclerotic layer, aerenchyma and chlorenchyma or parenchyma. Mature seed is exalbuminous. The embryo is spatulate and occupies major part of the seed. Pericarp consists of epicarp, hypoderm, mesocarp and endocarp. A comparative study of the families included in the order Cucurbitales indicates that the families Cucurbitaceae, Begoniaceae, Tetramelaceae, Datiscaceae, Coriariaceae, Corynocarpaceae and Anisophyllaceae show similarities in broad embryological features. Embryological data support the interfamilial relationships as inferred from the DNA sequence data.

Keywords : Embryology, Cucurbitaceae, Taxonomic Considerations
Volume : 6(1) pp. 75 - 98, 2014 Download PDF

Reproductive biology of Thottea barberi (Gamble) Ding Hou. (Aristolochaceae) - an endemic taxon of southern Western Ghat, Kerala, India

K. Haneef Femy, P. M. Radhamany* & A. Gangaprasad
Department of Botany, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala-695581, India

Received: 11. 01. 2013; Revised: 3.12.2013; Published on line: 20.12.2013



Thottea barberi (Gamble) Ding Hou. (Aristolochiaceae) is an endangered species strictly endemic to tropical evergreen forests at higher altitudes in three regions viz. Athirumala, Chemmunji Hills and Pongalappara of southern Western Ghats, Kerala. In natural conditions, plant propagates mainly through slow growing runners. This factor along with human activities adversely affects the population growth in the area and the species is becoming endangered. In order to conserve this plant species it is necessary to have a detailed knowledge of its reproductive biology. This species exhibits poor pollen viability, low in vivo pollen germination on stylar lobes and consequently poor fruit-set. Pollinated ovaries showed the presence of aborted ovules resulting in poor seed-set. The fruits are attacked by various insects.
Keywords : Endangered, floral phenology, pollen viability, aborted ovules.
Volume : 6(1) pp. 99 - 104, 2014 Download PDF
  Pollination Biology of Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) Skeels (Myrtaceae)

M. Sharanya, K. Aswani & M. Sabu*
Taxonomy Division, Department of Botany, University of Calicut, Kerala - 673 635, India

Received: 30.01.2013; Revised: 20.11.2013; Accepted & Published on line: 15.12.2013


The pollination biology of Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) Skeels, popularly known as bottle brush tree (Myrtaceae), a highly ornamental tree was investigated. In Calicut, it flowers throughout the year, except in July with peak blooming in April-May. During the peak flowering period, nearly 150±50 flowers/plant bloom every day. Inflorescence is a pendent spike with flowers opening between 1100 and 1200 h in an acropetal succession and the life span of an individual flower is 3-4 days. Anthers dehisce between 1300 and 1400 h. Fresh Pollen grains at the time of anthesis showed maximum (94.2±2 %) viability, thereafter the viability decreased steadily. Nectar is secreted on inner hypanthial disc atop the ovary. Flowers are visited by several birds, wasps, bees, butterflies and ants. Among these Nectarinia zeylonica, Loriculus vernalis, Chloropsis jerdoni, Vespa affinis, Polistes spp., Apis dorsata and Apis cerana are major pollinators. Other floral visitors include Trigona irridepennis, Tetragonula sp., various ants like Anoplolepis gracilipes, Camponotus parius, Polyrachis sp., butterflies like Euploea core, Rapala manae and Hypolimnas missipus are nectar robbers. Fruits are woody capsules and remain attached on the plant even after flowering in the next season. The highest fruit yield (85%) was recorded in open pollinated conditions.

Keywords : Breeding system, Callistemon citrinus, Myrtaceae, Pollination biology
Volume : 6(1) pp. 105 - 110, 2014 Download PDF
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