The International Journal of Plant Reproductive Biology
(Indexed by CABI)
ISSN Print : 0975-4296; ISSN Online : 2249-7390
Volume-5, Number-1, Jan, 2013

Oil rich seeds of Jatropha curcas L. as a renewable source of biodiesel:
genotyping clones of cultivated varieties and cloning genes for fatty acid biosynthesis

D.G. Ambrosi, G. Galla, S. Collani & G. Barcaccia*
Laboratory of Plant Genetics and Genomics DAFNAE, University of Padova,
Campus of Agripolis, Viale dell'Università 16, 35020 Legnaro, Padova, Italy.

*e-mail:; phone: +39 049 8272 814; fax: +39 049 8272 839
Received: 26.02.2013; Accepted : 24.05.2013; Published on line : 25.06.2013


Jatropha is becoming a popular non-food oleaginous crop in several developing countries for its proposed value for the production of bioenergy. Despite the great potentials of its oil-rich seeds as renewable source of biofuel and the broad interest toward large-scale plantations, relatively little is known with respect to population genetics and functional genomics. We have performed SSR marker analysis to gain new insights on the genetic diversity structure of 123 multiple accessions, and the genetic relationships among commercial clones and locally dominant ecotypes. Based on our findings, seeds commercialized worldwide seem to include a few closely related genotypes that show a very low differentiation among cultivars. In addition, we have cloned and characterized 12 genes that control key steps of FA biosynthesis for a better understanding of the polymorphism information content of their allelic variants. The sequencing of these genes was pursued for discovering a set of discriminant SNPs and for haplotyping a core collection of accessions. Gene expression levels were also determined in two distinct developmentally staged seeds by means of quantitative Real-Time PCR assays. The genetical and functional analysis of seed-specific fatty acid desaturases (FAD/SAD) is the first step for selecting or generating high-oleate J. curcas genotypes, and also for breeding oil-rich J. curcas cultivars suitable for biofuel production.

Keywords : Jatropha, genetic diversity, SSR markers, FA genes, SNPs, haplotypes.
Volume : 5(2) pp. 102 - 117, 2013 Download PDF
  Problems of Plant Embryology – Past, Present and Future

T.B. Batygina
Department of Embryology, St-Petersburg State University, St-Petersburg, Russia

Received: 22.7.2012; Revised: 4.8.2012; Accepted: 1.1.2013; Published online: 26.06.2013


The review presents an overview of the past, present and future problems related to plant embryology. The necessity of engaging embryological information when working out the breeding programs or constructing industrial techniques has been confirmed, in particular, by the fact that in plants organogenesis is continued throughout the whole ontogenesis. Besides, the importance of developmental biology which disposes of a number of fundamental discoveries, emphasis has also been given on other important aspects e.g. cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), phenomenon of apomixis, distant hybridization and some others as these can be widely introduced into practice for increasing productivity. It has been emphasized that some principles and laws formulated in the biology should be worth noted e.g. the laws of embryogeny, characterizing development of flowering plants embryo: law of origin, law of numbers, law of disposition, law of destination, law of parsimony and law of critical mass. These laws could have analogies in other fields of scientific knowledge and should be considered among the general theoretical premises of the new science – the tectology.

Keywords : Plant embrology, organogenesis, cytoplasmic, male sterility (CMS), apomixis, distant hybridization
Volume : 5(2) pp. 118 - 147, 2013 Download PDF

Classification of Generative Structure Anomalies of monopodial rosette-forming Rosaceae

А.А. Notov & E.A. Andreeva
Faculty of Biology, Department of Botany, Tver State University, 170100 Tver,
Zhelyabova St. 33, 170100, RUSSIA
Received: 09.02.2013 Revised: 12.03.2013; Accepted : 01.04.3013 Published online: 01.05.2013


The main types of generative structure in different groups of monopodial rosette-forming Rosaceae are identified. The authors suggest an approach that allows classifying the anomalies specific to monopodial-rosette patterns and mechanisms of conversion of typical morphogenesis. It is possible to elaborate a classification based on the characteristics of the spectrum of options that occur in specific taxonomic groups.

Keywords : Anomaly, flower, generative structures, classification, monopodial rosette-forming plants, Rosaceae
Volume : 5(2) pp. 148 - 155, 2013 Download PDF

Seed germination of Panax wangianus S. C. Sun (Araliaceae): a critically endangered medicinal plant of Meghalaya, Northeast India

N. Venugopal* & Preeti Ahuja**
Plant Anatomy Laboratory, Department of Botany, North-Eastern Hill University,
Shillong-793022, Meghalaya, India.
*e- mail:; **e-mail:
Received: 17.10.2012; Revised: 15.01.2013; Accepted : 15.02.2013; Published online: 20. 03.2013


Panax wangianus (Syn. Panax pseudoginseng) S. C. Sun (Araliaceae) is a critically endangered, medicinal plant of north-east India. The seeds of Panax species are known to have a complicated germination process and both the warm and cold stratification may take up to 18 to 22 months for complete germination. Present study deals with the effect of gibberellic acid (GA ) on seed 3 germination. In plant growth cabinets, twelve sets of fifty seeds were kept separately: seeds without any treatment sown in soil and sterilized sand; seeds sown in lime mixed soil (0.2 mg/gm soil) and seeds treated for-overnight with 0.1% solution of gibberellic acid (GA ) sown in soil and sterilized 3 sand at different temperatures viz. 25oC, 15oC, 4oC under shade conditions at the North-Eastern Hill University Campus, Shillong (25o 34' N & 92o 54' E, 1450 m AMSL). Seed germination is hypogeal and the germination percentage ranged from 20 to 64% in P. wangianus. Our findings suggest that morpho-physiological dormancy in seeds may not be as widespread as previously reported within the genus Panax.

Keywords : Morpho-physiological dormancy; Northeast India; Panax wangianus S. C. Sun; seed germination.
Volume : 5(2) pp. 156 - 160, 2013 Download PDF
  Variable expression of genic male sterility in Petunia axillaris (Lam.) B.S.P.

* V. Padmaja & A. Rama Krishna
Department of Botany, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam- 530 003, India.

*e- mail
Received: 6.12.2012; Revised: 11.03.2013; Accepted: 29.03.2013; Published online: 01. 04.2013


In 16 genic male sterile lines of Petunia axillaris (Lam.) B.S.P. inter as well as intra plant variation in the manifestation of sterile phenotype was observed in three successive generations and in two seasons of the same generation. Due to variability in the timing of meiotic /post-meiotic arrest, the male sterile lines can be classified into pmc, tetrad and microspore type categories. Variability in the expression of the sterile phenotype is related to a similar variation in the tapetal breakdown at the corresponding stages of meiosis. The observations suggest that the 'ms' gene expresses at different stages of microsporogenesis.

Keywords : Petunia, meiotic break down, correlative tapetal breakdown.
Volume : 5(2) pp. 162 - 167, 2013 Download PDF

Incidence of self pollination viz-a-viz in situ pollen germination in seven common winter weeds of Jammu, India

Madhavi Khajuria, Meenakshi Koul & Namrata Sharma*
Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu- 180 006, India

Received: 24.12.2012; Revised: 08.03.2013; Accepted: 12.03.2013; Published online: 11.04.2013


This communication summarizes data on the breeding system of seven annual winter weed species forming natural populations in and around Jammu, Jammu & Kashmir state, India. These include Fumaria indica Pugsley, Mazus japonicus Thunb., Medicago polymorpha L., Stellaria media (L.) Vill., Trifolium dubium Sibth, Trifolium fragiferum L. and Vicia hirsuta (L.) Gray. All turned out to be predominantly self-pollinated species with high percentage of fruit set and seed set both on openpollination and unassisted selfing. Five of these species were observed to practise in situ pollen germination where pollen grains were seen germinating while still inside the anthers. This phenomenon however did not boost the reproductive efficiency in these species as the species showing highest fruit set turned out to be two, one completely lacking this phenomena and other showing highest incidence of the same.

Keywords : Annual weed, in situ pollen germination, reproductive efficiency, self pollination.
Volume : 5(2) pp. 168 - 173, 2013 Download PDF
  Pollen morphology of Cleome viscosa L. and Cleome burmanni W. & A. (Cleomaceae)

Lakshmi S. Pillai* & Bindu R. Nair
Department of Botany, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram, India

Received: 06.01.2013 Revised: 28.01.2013 Accepted: 01.07.2013 Published on line: 01.06.2013


The morphological features (pollen shape, size, exine thickness, ornamentation, colpus dimensions and pore size) of pollen of Cleome viscosa and C. burmanni (Cleomaceae) were investigated using Light Microscopy (LM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The pollen type, class and aperture type were similar in both the species. The pollen grains in both species were monads, as long as broad, nearly spherical, prolate spheroidal and possessed trizonocolporate aperture. The details of pollen grains could be further discerned using SEM. There were significant variations in the nature of exine ornamentation including the dimensions of muri, lumina and arrangement of columellae. Species relationships are evident from these observations. A taxonomic key based on pollen morphological characters is proposed.

Keywords : Palynology, SEM, aperture, exine, reticulate, columellae, colpus.
Volume : 5(2) pp. 174 - 177, 2013 Download PDF
  Palynological studies in South Indian species of Ipomoea Linn.

Praveen Dhar T.
Department of Bioscience, R. P. A College, Marthandam, Kanyakumari , TamilNadu, India -629 165

e-mail :
dharpraveent @
Received :15.01.2013 Revised: 24.02.2013; Accepted : 20.03.2013; Published online : 01.04.2013


Palynology is an important auxiliary tool for systematic classification of flowering plants. In the present palynological study details of 16 species of Ipomoea are presented. Plants used in this study were collected from different localities of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The morphological features of the pollen such as aperture, size, shape, exine ornamentation, nature and length of spine were recorded. The aperture character is considered to be of primary importance, the exine surface pattern as secondary and others as tertiary. All the16 species of Ipomoea exhibited spheroidal shape pollen, pantoporate aperture and exine with spine ornamentation.

Keywords : Palynology, Ipomoea, fertility
Volume : 5(2) pp. 178 - 182, 2013 Download PDF

In vitro pollen germination of five important leguminous tree species of the Mumbai region, India

Somendra Sharma
Department of Botany, M.D. College, Parel, Mumbai-400012, India

Received: 24.10.2012 Revised: 25.2.2013 Accepted: 29.03.2013 Published online: 20.04.2013

An in vitro pollen germination medium was optimized for five important leguminous tree species (Dalbergia sissoo, Bauhinia purpurea, Butea monosperma, Samanea saman and Peltophorum inerme). The medium is solid at room temperature and can be used on an ordinary glass slide. Using this medium, the germinability of pollen grains collected from trees of the five species in the Mumbai region varied between 84% and 96%. The maximum length of the pollen tube attained on the medium differed with species and seems to be associated with pollen diameter.

Keywords : Pollen grain germination, artificial medium for in vitro pollen germination, leguminous tree           

Volume : 5(2) pp. 184 - 186, 2013 Download PDF

Studies on expression of sex in Carica papaya plants raised from seeds treated with estrogen-a female sex hormone

Bharti Chaurasia & Seema Chauhan
*Academy of Life Sciences, 8/13 I Kaushalpur Bye Pass Road, Agra-282005, India

Received: 29.11.2012; Revised: 09.03.2013; Accepted : 30.04.2013; Published online: 29.03.2013


Modification of expression of sex by plant hormones in both monoecious and dioecious plants, particularly in cucurbits has received considerable attention. Increasing the number of female or hermaphrodite plants of papaya (Carica papaya) a popular and economically important fruit tree which produces female, hermaphrodite, and male plants will be commercially useful. Human sex hormones also known to modify sex expression in some plants have not been tested in papaya. Present investigation has been undertaken to test the efficacy of estrogen a female sex hormone on sex expression in papaya. Treatments with estrogen delayed the formation of male flowers, while the number of days taken for flowering in female and hermaphrodite plants was reduced. In the plants raised from the seeds treated with 10 and 20 ppm for 12 h, the number of female and hermaphrodite plants increased, but the number of fruits and total yield reduced. The female plants also showed an increase in peroxidase activity.

Keywords : Carica papaya, sex expression, human sex hormones, peroxidase.
Volume : 5(2) pp. 188 - 193, 2013 Download PDF

Influence of bee-attractants on pollination and yield in pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill sp.

V. Sivaram* & K. V. Jayaramappa
Department of Botany, Bangalore University, Bangalore-560 056, India

Received: 03.01.2013 Revised: 05.04.2013 Accepted: 12.04.2013; Published online: 21.04.2013



Different concentrations of Bee-Q and Fruit boost™ were evaluated to understand their effect on the frequency of honeybee visitation in pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.). It was observed that, treatments with 12.5 g/l Bee-Q and 0.75 ml/l Fruit boost significantly enhanced bee foraging. In addition, the plants sprayed with bee attractants exhibited significant increase in seed set, seed weight, yield/plant and seed germination percentage.
Keywords : Bee-attractants, honeybee, Cajanus cajan (L.).
Volume : 5(2) pp. 194 - 198, 2013 Download PDF

Floral morphological features and variability in two species of Averrhoa L. (Oxalidaceae)

S. L. Soumya* & Bindu R. Nair
Department of Botany, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram-695581
Kerala, India
Received: 2.1.2013; Revised: 27.05.2013; Accepted: 01.06.2013; Published on line: 12.06.2013


Averrhoa (Oxalidaceae) a genus of medium sized trees is represented by two species, Averrhoa bilimbi and A. carambola. Tristyly is one of the characteristic features of family Oxalidaceae. During the present investigation, only mid-styled flowers could be observed in A. bilimbi while, two floral morphs such as long-styled and short-styled were observed in A. carambola. The number of sepals, petals, stamens and carpels in A. bilimbi was quite variable and the variability was more prominent in stamens and carpels of A. bilimbi as compared to that of petals and stamens of A. carambola. Capitate glandular, peltate and eglandular trichomes were found distributed on different floral whorls of A. bilimbi and A. carambola. In A. carambola there was only one whorl of stamens and the other whorl consisted of staminodes. Pollen grains from long and short stamens of A. bilimbi were correspondingly large and small in size, while small and subprolate pollen grains with reticulate exine were observed in both the species. Variation in the length of stamens and style reflected the deviation from the typical tristylous nature of Oxalidaceae flowers. Possible evolutionary impications are discussed.

Keywords : Averrhoa bilimbi, Averrhoa carambola, Oxalidaceae, floral morphology.
Volume : 5(2) pp. 200 - 209, 2013 Download PDF

Floral morphology in chemically treated male sterile plants of Cajanus cajan L. var. Manak

G. Singh & H. K. Gupta*
*Department of Botany, M.P. P. G. College, Danta, Sikar (Rajasthan)- 332702, India
Received: 19.02.2013 Revised: 31.03.2013; Accepted: 12.04.2013; Published online: 20.05.2013


Floral morphology in chemically treated male sterile plants of arhar (Cajanus cajan L. var. Manak) was studied. The plants sprayed with various concentrations of three chemical hybridizing agents [surf excel (a popular synthetic detergent), benzotriazole (C H N ) and ethrel or ethephon (2-Chloro 6 5 3 ethyl phosphonic acid)] caused 92-100% pollen sterility as compared to 8-10% sterility in male fertile plants. The size and color of calyx and corolla of flowers in treated plants was not much unaffected. However, in treated plants, the size of the anthers and stigma was reduced and their shape was also deformed. The number of stigmatic papillae in the flowers of plants treated with ethrel was reduced. In the flowers of surf excel treated plants, the stigmatic papillae were loosely arranged. Higher concentrations of benzotriazole caused burning of stigma.

Keywords : Male sterility, benzotriazole, surf excel, ethrel
Volume : 5(2) pp. 210 - 214, 2013 Download PDF
  Phenological cycle of an annual weed- Trifolium fragiferum L.

Meenakshi Koul & Namrata Sharma*
Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu–180006, (J&K) India

Received: 29.12.2012; Accepted: 15.01.2013; Published online : 20.03.2013


Trifolium fragiferum L. (Fabaceae) is a common annual weed in Jammu region of J&K state, India with a brief life cycle. This hermaphrodite legume produces large number of flowers and fruits and the seeds show staggering germination. Present communication describes the phenological cycle of this annual herb.

Keywords : Annual weed, blooming, fruit set, seed dispersal, staggering germination.
Volume : 5(2) pp. 216 - 217, 2013 Download PDF
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