The International Journal of Plant Reproductive Biology
(Indexed by CABI)
ISSN Print : 0975-4296; ISSN Online : 2249-7390
Volume-5, Number-1, Jan, 2013
  Flowering, Seed setting and Self-incompatibility in Poa labillardieri (Poaceae)

Nabil M. Ahmad & Peter M. Martin*
Amenity Horticulture Research Unit, University of Sydney Plant Breeding Institute,
107 Cobbitty Road, Cobbitty, NSW 2570, Australia

Received: 1.8.2012 Revised: 13.9.2012 Online Published: 13.11.2012


Flowering, seed setting and self-incompatibility in Poa labillardieri Steud., the common tussock grass of southeastern Australia, were investigated by outdoor, greenhouse and laboratory studies. Flowering was found to progress from the terminal to the basal nodes of the panicle and within a branch from the distal to the proximal spikelets, but with significant irregularities and overlaps between the sequences. Progression within the spikelets was, however, without exception, from the basal to the terminal floret. The whole panicle flowered in two days, with about 30% of spikelets opening on the first day and the remainder on the second day. Anthesis was relatively slow under normal spring weather conditions, requiring on average 15 minutes for exsertion and 18 minutes for dehiscence. Under open pollination conditions mean seed setting percentage was about 25% in each of the four zones of the panicle (lower, middle and upper whorls, and terminal branches). A glasshouse experiment with eleven selected lines with open and self-pollination showed varying but generally high percentage seed setting with open pollination and zero or very low seed setting with selfing, indicating a high degree of self-sterility. Using the same eleven lines, a pollination experiment with excised pistils and observation of pollen tube growth by means of fluorescent microscopy showed that all cross-pollination combinations had normal pollen tube growth with penetration to the ovular region, while the self-pollinations showed complete gametophytic self incompatibility. The implications of these findings for the biology of the species are discussed.

Keywords : Poa labillardieri, self-incompatibility, seed setting, panicle, flowering sequence
Volume : 5(1) pp. 1 - 4, 2013 Download PDF
  Diversity of Life Cycles of Modular Organisms and Reproductive Biology

À.À. Notov
Faculty of Biology, Department of Botany, Tver State University, 170100 Tver, Zhelyabova St. 33, 170100, RUSSIA

Received: 8.11.2012 Revised: 5.12.2012


Open growth of modular living beings defines close interrelation in embryogenesis and morphogenesis, processes of growth, reproduction and regeneration. Wide frequency of composite cycles with alternation of generations (development forms) is characteristic of modular organisms. Life cycles of modular organisms differ in number and character of change of nuclear phases and presence or absence of alternation of generations (development forms). Alternation of generations is not always steady. The diversity of options of life cycles of unitary organisms are considerably more limited. Composite life cycles of modular organisms became basis for realization of various options of asexual reproduction. Features of change of nuclear phases and generations should be considered when analyzing types and ways of reproduction, reproductive strategies in different kingdoms of live organisms. A detailed analysis of diversity of life cycles will promote development of reproductive biology.

Keywords : Modular organization; life cycles; reproductive systems; reproduction; reproductive strategy.
Volume : 5(1) pp. 15 - 20, 2013 Download PDF
  Polyembryony: Twins — The Result of Vegetative Propagation

T.B. Batygina & J.V. Osadtchiy
Komarov Botanical Institute RAS, Saint Petersburg, Russia
Received: 11.07.2012; Accepted: 16.09.2012


Polyembryony in a traditional, strict sense in the context of seed plants usually refers to the formation of several embryos in a single seed without consideration of their origin (Maheshwari 1950). In the light of new, non-traditional ideas (Batygina 1992b, 1993), it is necessary to interpret this term in a broad sense (sensu lato) as a formation of several sexual embryos or embryoids both in generative  (seed, flower) and on vegetative (leaf, stem and root) organs of a plant. In animals (for example in insects and mammalia),similar phenomena appear, as will be considered below.

Keywords : Polyembryony, Vegetative Propagation
Volume : 5(1) pp. 21 - 27, 2013 Download PDF

Pollination constraints in flowering plants — Human actions undoing over hundred million years of co-evolution and posing an unprecedented threat to biodiversity

Pratibha Thakur & A. K. Bhatnagar*
Environmental Biology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi–110 007, India



Pollination has been a major driving force in evolution and diversification of seed plants. The flowering plants and their pollinators have co-evolved since the Cretaceous, developing remarkable mutualistic adaptations and interdependence in order to benefit from the relationship. Plants have evolved in terms of inflorescence architecture, floral structure, colour and smell for attraction, and nectar and pollen as reward to maximize their pollination by mainly insects, birds and bats. Evolutionary shifts back to wind pollination have occurred in many taxa to ensure effective pollen dispersal and capture in situations that limited biotic pollination. Spatial and temporal adaptations too helped in sustaining optimal utilization of the available pollination services for reproduction. In recent decades, plant-pollinator interactions have been adversely affected by the decline of pollinators across the globe. For long it was suspected, but now has been documented that pollinator limitations are causing parallel diminution of plants that rely upon them for pollination. Worldwide decline in populations of insects, birds and bats is posing high reproductive stress on a large number of flowering plant species. Habitat fragmentation, overexploitation, forest fire, biological invasion and other anthropogenic factors are adding to loss of pollinators and their activities. Climate change and pollution are emerging as new, significant hazards. Several species have found their way into red lists owing to pollen limitation caused by pollinator losses. Diminished population densities on account of these factors are affecting pollination of wind-pollinated species too. As per recent estimates, over one fifth of the world's plant species are threatened with extinction (IUCN 2011). Plants that are dioecious or self-incompatible and depend on specialists for their pollination are more vulnerable. Understanding the causes of pollen limitation and pollination failure is pre-requisite for conservation and restoration of threatened species. Conservation of plants along with their pollinators should receive urgent attention to sustain the reproductive success and regeneration potential of species and ecosystems.

Keywords : co-evolution, floral mechanisms, fragmentation, mutualistic adaptations, pollination, pollinator decline, pollination constraints, pollen limitation, reproductive assurance.
Volume : 5(1) pp. 29 - 74, 2013 Download PDF

Pollen morphology and in vitro pollen germination of Rauvolfia hookeri Srinivasan & Chithra – a rare and endemic plant of southern Western Ghats, India

Aanath Prabhakaranpillai Ranjusha*, Appukuttannair Gangaprasad & Puthuparampil Madhavan Radhamany
Department of Botany, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.

e-mail:; *;
Received: 12-7-2012 Revised: 7.8.2012 Published: 1.1.2013


Pollen morphology and in vitro pollen germination studies of Rauvolfia hookeri Srinivasan & Chithra were carried out. The pollen has been studied by light (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Characteristics such as the shape and size of the pollen grains, the number of apertures and the exine ornamentation were recorded. SEM studies revealed significant difference in exine ornamentation between acetolysed and unacetolysed grains. The pollen grains of R. hookeri are spheroidal to prolate spheroidal and 3-zonoporate. Exine ornamentation of acetolysed pollen grains is psilate with widely distant puncta whereas unacetolysed grain seems to contain some ridges and furrows here and there. Pollen fertility was estimated using glycerine:acetocarmine method and viability by Fluorochromatic Reaction test. In vitro pollen germination studies were carried out using Brewbaker and Kwack's medium supplemented with different concentrations of sucrose. Standardized germination medium supplemented with 40% sucrose showed 96.5% germination of pollen grains.

Keywords : Scanning Electron Microscopy, FCR test, pollen viability, Brewbaker & Kwack's medium
Volume : 5(1) pp. 75 - 80, 2013 Download PDF

Flowering phenology and floral visitors of some medicinal plants of Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India

Ashok K Jain*, Bishnu K. Sharma & Arbeen Ahmad Bhat
School of Studies in Botany, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India
eceived: 25.6.2012 Revised: 25.10.2012 Accepted: 25-11-2012


The present study is based on the observations on flowering phenology and floral visitors of some medicinally important plant species growing at Gwalior during 2010-2011. The main floral visitors recorded are honey bees (Apis dorsata and A. indica), butterflies (Pieris brassicae, Limenistis spp. and Danaus plexippus), wasps (Vespa spp.), ants (Camponotus compressus), bumblebees (Xylocopa spp.), spiders, small bees (Melipona spp.) and sunbirds, mainly the purplish black male (Nectarinia asiatica).

Keywords : Flowering phenology, pollinators.
Volume : 5(1) pp. 81 - 84, 2013 Download PDF

Standardization of Seed Dormancy Breaking Protocol for Aristolochia tagala –a Rare and Vulnerable Twiner

S. Soosairaj*, A. Kala, P. Raja & A. Mercy Angelin
Department of Botany, St Joseph's College, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu-620002, India.

Received: 3.8.2012; Revised: 27.8. 2012; Accepted: 1.9.2012


Aristolochia tagala, a rare and vulnerable twiner has restricted distribution to tropical regions and its population is towards decline due to various anthropogenic factors. The fruit of A. tagala is known for its seed dispersal mechanism as parachute. The seeds are very small in size and light in weight with membranous wings on all sides. Natural population of this species is propagated through conventional type alone i.e. by seed. Hence, the only possible measure of increasing its natural population size in wild condition would be enhancing its germination potency. The present study aims at standardizing the dormancy breaking methods such as mechanical scarification, chemical, hormone, heat, cow dung, bird's excreta treatments and field test. Among the various methods evaluated, osmopriming with Potassium dihydrogen phosphate proved to be efficient in breaking the dormancy (84 %) followed by cow dung treatment (68 %) suggestive of possible sowing methods in the forest to enhance the population of this vulnerable species.

Keywords : Aristolochia tagala, cow dung, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, seed germination
Volume : 5(1) pp. 85 - 88, 2013 Download PDF

Phenological events of Eryngium foetidum L. from Karnataka, India

Chandrika R.*, Thara Saraswathi K. J. & Shivakameshwari M. N.**
*Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Bangalore University, Jnanabharathi campus, Bangalore-560056
**Department of Botany, Bangalore University, Jnanabharathi campus, Bangalore-560056
Received: 3.9.2012 Revised: 07.10.2012 Accepted: 10.10.2012


Present communication deals with the phenological events in an aromatic herb, Eryngium foetidum L. (Apiaceae). It is indigenous to the Caribbean, but grows widely in India, China, south East Asia, Tropical Africa and Australia (Adams 1971). In India, the plant is distributed in specific geographical locations in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andaman Nicobar Islands (personal observation recorded during field work) and north eastern states of Assam and Manipur (Kar & Borthakur 2007). Because of its strong aroma resembling the normal coriander, it is commonly known as wild coriander and is used in a wide range of culinary preparations and treating various ailments in folk medicine (Ochse & Brink 1977). The plant has high therapeutic value and is used in traditional medicine to treat cold, cough, asthma, convulsions, stomach disorders, hypertension and in lowering cholesterol (Anonymous 1950). Its anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties have been scientifically proven (Saenz et al 1997) and its antihelminthic potential is patented (Forbes & Steglich 2009). The plant is also a source for high value essential oil, widely used in perfumery industry (Pino et al 1997, Wong et al 1994).

Keywords : Phenology, Eryngium foetidum
Volume : 5(1) pp. 89 - 91, 2013 Download PDF
  Phenology of some species of Riccia L.

Anima Langer*, Madhu Bhagat** & Roopse Kapoor
Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu-180 006, J&K
: *,**
Received: 16.7.2012 Revised: 9.8.2012 Accepted: 1.1.2013


Present communication deals with the phenological studies on three species of Riccia (family: Ricciaceae, order: Marchantiales) collected from Jammu city and its adjoining areas

Keywords : Riccia billardieri, Riccia discolor, Riccia cruciata           

Volume : 5(1) pp. 93 - 94, 2013 Download PDF
  Phenology of some Spineless Cacti

C. S. Bewli*
#165, Sector 36A, Chandigarh-160036, India

Received: 12.7.2012; Revised: 15.8.2012; Published on line: 20.8.2012


The spineless cacti have unique appearance and they profusely bloom and some of the spineless species that grow well in Northern region of India are: Ariocarpus kotschoubeyanus, Astrophytum asterias, Astrophytum myriostigma, Aztekium ritteri, Echinopsis subdenudata, Echinocereus viereckii var. morricallii, Frailea castanea, Lophophora williamsii, Pelecyphora aselliformis, Tephrocactus diadematus, Turbinicarpus pseudopectinatus, all eight species of Ariocarpus and epiphytic cacti. In the present article, the phenology of some spineless cacti is described.

Keywords : Spineless Cacti
Volume : 5(1) pp. 95 - 97, 2013 Download PDF

Modification of sex expression in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L. var. barsati karela) by estrogen a female sex hormone

Pratima Singh,1 Bharti Chaurasia2 & S.V.S. Chauhan2*
Department of Botany, School of Life Sciences, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar University, Agra-282002, India
Academy of Life Sciences, 8/13 I Kaushalpur Bye Pass Road, Agra-282005, India


Received: 23.8.2012 Revised: 25.11.2012 Published Online: 28.12.12



Present study was undertaken to find out the effect of estrogen, using Progynon depot (Estradiol valerate); German Remedies, Ltd., Goa as its source. It consists of Estradiol valerate-U.S.P. 10mg/ml and arachis oil I.P.-Q.S. 10 ml of estrogen was dissolved in 10 ml methanol to make the stock mass concentration of 1mg/ml. It was diluted with distilled water to make 10 (C ) and 100 1 (C ) ppm solutions.
Keywords : sex expression, Momordica charantia, estrogen
Volume : 5(1) pp. 99 - 101, 2013 Download PDF
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