The International Journal of Plant Reproductive Biology
(Indexed by CABI)
ISSN Print : 0975-4296; ISSN Online : 2249-7390
Volume-3, Number-2, June 2011

Reproductive Morphology in Mediterranean Seirospora giraudyi (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta)

Conxi Rodríguez-Prieto1 & Max H. Hommersand2
University of Girona, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Environmental Sciences, Campus de Montilivi, 17071 Girona, Spain
Department of Biology, Coker Hall, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3280, USA

e-mail: (corresponding author)

Manuscript received: 25.04.2011; Revised: 12.05.2011; Published on line: 25.05.2011


This paper presents a detailed description of the reproductive characters of Mediterranean Seirospora giraudyi based on fresh material collected in the northwestern coast of Spain. Vegetative cells are uninucleate. The plant is monoecious. Spermatangial parents cells are clustered on modified dwarf determinate filaments, usually situated on adaxial surfaces of branches. One to four spermatia are formed by elongation and proximal divisions of the spermatangial parent cells. Spermatium with a nucleus situated in a mec. The thallus is procarpic. The four-celled carpogonial branch is initially L-shaped, and it is situated on a periaxial supporting cell. When the carpogonial branch is either initiated or fully differentiated, a second periaxial cell forms on the opposite side of the fertile axial cell. The mature carpogonial branch is U-shaped and the supporting cell and second periaxial cell enlarge and divide transversely to produce a pair of uninucleate auxiliary cells. The nucleus in the fertilized carpogonium divides twice and the carpogonium cleaves vertically into two cells that, in turn, cut off a pair of uninucleate connecting cells that fuse with the auxiliary cells on opposite sides; the diploid nuclei in the connecting cells divide at the site of fusion and one of the nuclei enters the auxiliary cell while the other is extruded. Each auxiliary cell gives rise to a terminal primary gonimoblast cell containing the diploid nucleus and a narrow foot cell with two distal lobes. The haploid nucleus remains in the lower lobe of the foot cell and divides, whereas the extruded diploid nucleus resides next to the upper lobe of the foot cell. The two primary gonimoblasts elongate and divide transversely to form terminal gonimolobe initials, followed by several lateral gonimolobe initials. Gonimolobes form lax chains of carposporangia. As the gonimoblasts mature, both lobes of the foot cell which is situated on the supporting cell elongate, the upper one secondarily connecting with the supporting cell, and the lower one with the fertile axial cell. The gonimoblasts are subtended at maturity by one to several clusters of involucral filaments. Seirospora is currently placed in the tribe Euptiloteae; however, the reproductive characters of S. giraudyi are identical to those described for the Callithamnieae. Molecular studies are needed to confirm the taxonomic position of S. giraudyi as well as that of the other species placed in Seirospora.

Keywords : Callithamnieae / Ceramiales / Euptiloteae/ Nuclear behaviour / Reproduction / Taxonomy


Aquatic Hyphomycetes and its Anamorph (asexual stage)–Teleomorph (sexual stage)
Relations: A Review

S.C. Sati & S. Joshi
Department of Botany, D.S.B. Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital-263002, India


Manuscript received on: 20.04.2011;
Published on line: 01.05.2011


Aquatic hyphomycetes, the imperfect conidial fungi occurring on submerged leaf litter in running fresh water bodies, are interesting group of fungi and matter of great curiosity. They are characterized by their magnificent conidial forms. Majority of them are known for their anamorphs (asexual stage), whereas, their teleomorphs (sexual stage) are also not uncommon. Out of nearly 300 species, about 15% of these have now been known with their pleomorhic holomorphs (asexual and sexual stages). This paper reviews the anamorphic-teleomorphic relation of the aquatic hyphomycetous fungi.

Keywords : Aquatic Hyphomycetes, Anamorph (asexual stage), Teleomorph (sexual stage).



In vitro Study on Growth and Gametangial Induction in the Male Clone of Marchantia papillata Raddi subsp. grossibarba (Steph.) Bischl.

Vishal Awasthi, Virendra Nath*, Neerja Pande and A.K. Asthana
Bryology Laboratory, National Botanical Research Institute
(Council of Scientific & Industrial Research), Lucknow-221001, India

Department of Botany, Kumaun University, Nainital-263 002, India


Received: 16.05.2011; Published on line: 05.06.2011


Axenic cultures of the male plants of Marchantia papillata Raddi subsp. grossibarba (Steph.) Bischl. have been established by using gemmae as ex plants and propagated in vitro. Dilute nutrients medium comprising only macronutrients was found optimum for germination of gemmae while further differentiation into mature thalli needed addition of micronutrients. Single gemma cultured on half strength Knop’s macronutrients + Nitsch’s trace elements along with 10 ppm freshly prepared ferric citrate produced two or more thalli within eight weeks of culture while in the same medium supplemented with 1% sucrose a cluster of many well developed thalli proliferated. An enhanced growth in form of overlapping rosette forming thalli has been taken place in continuous illumination of 4000-5500 lux at 210C due to growth of several innovations from the basal part of thalli on dorsal surface. Gemma  cup formation and gemmae production occurred late and only in medium having sucrose upon exhaustion of inorganic nutrients. Multiplication of thalli has readily been achieved by transferring of the apical portion of cultured thalli or innovation, and gemmae from the in vitro raised thalli on fresh basal medium with above constituents. Thalli developed in culture were acclimatized and transferred to soil in order to their further propagation where abundant antheridiophores were induced under short day and low temperature; light period of 10 hours at 15-180C and dark period of 14 hours at 10-150C.

Keywords : Antheridiophores, culture, gemmae, Marchantia papillata Raddi subsp. grossibarba (Steph.) Bischl., propagation.



Untraditional Notions on Plant Reproduction, Phenomenon of Embryoidogeny, New Category of Vegetative Propagation

T B Batygina
Laboratory of Embryology and Reproductive Biology, Komarov Botanical Institute of PAS, 196376 Sankt-Petersburg,
Prof. Popov Street, 2, 197376, RUSSIA


Received on: 12.02.2011;
Published on line: 03.03.2011


At every ontogenesis stages, beginning with zygote, the flowering plants have the tendency to endogenous or exogenous formation of embryoids (somatic embryos), developing asexually on the all organs, in natural conditions and in the culture in vitro. The formation of embryoids – the phenomenon of embryoidogeny is widely spread among plants. While distinguishing embryoidogeny into a special type of reproduction and propagation we used two criteria: ontogenetic (homophesic reproduction, uniparietal heredity) and morphological (bipolar organization with shoot and root apexes and new polar axis). The universality of morphogenesis of embryoids (somatic embryos) and sexual embryos, forming in natural conditions and in experience – in the culture in vitro, is considered to be the main state of embryoidogeny concept. It was firstly revealed that vegetative propagation is represented by two types – embryoidogenous and hemmorhizogenous but not hemmorhizogenous alone, as it is regarded earlier. The developing of a new individual could be realized through the three morphogenesis pathways: embryogenesis, embryoidogenesis and organogenesis, but not two (embryogenesis and organogenesis, as early considered). At embryogeny a new individual arises with the help of sexual process (meiosis and gamete fusion, heterophasic reproduction, biparietal heredity). Depending on the origin and location of somatic embryos on the maternal plant two general forms of embryoidogeny could be distinguished: reproductive and floral ones. Initial cells of embryoids are characterized from the position of stem cells. Embryoidogeny could not be referred to any traditional categories of vegetative propagation but it must be considered as its special form, including adventive embryony and vivipary. The biological significance of embryoidogeny its relation with polyembryony and its role in plant dispersal (different types of diasporas) were revealed. A special attention was paid to the practice utilization of embryoidogeny phenomenon.

Keywords : morphogenesis pathways, stem cells, evolution, embryoidogeny, embryoid, embryo, embryogeny, gemmorhizogeny, bud, renewal and propagation of plants, embryogenesis, embryoidogenesis, apoptosis, cloning, hierarch.



Seedlessness in Aloe vera L. – Role of male track in failure to harness benefits of sexual reproduction

Swati Gupta & Namrata Sharma*
Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu-180006, India
* e-mail:

Received: 10.01.2011; Revised: 11.02.2011;
Published on line: 16.02.2011


Aloe vera L. (Asphodelaceae) has a long ethnobotanical and medical history ( Foster 2007, Surjushe 2008). It is a stemless, spiny, succulent plant with bright orange coloured tubular flowers borne on unbranched or branched scape. Though a prolific flower producer, seed formation occurs rarely in this plant. Propagation is through vegetative means, mainly through suckers. The cause behind seedlessness was probed in the area of study i.e. Jammu. Plants scanned from different areas were male sterile. Pollen viability was quite low in all plants and displayed interplant and seasonal variability. Analysis of male sex track revealed large number of abnormalities in p.m.c meiosis in many plants in all seasons. Chromosome lagging and chromatin bridges are common at Anaphase II. Presence of this anamolous chromosomal behaviour revealed that male sterility in A. vera is not only environmentally induced, it has a genetic base also.




Wind-Faciliated Self-Pollination in Harrisia portoricensis (Cactaceae): A Mechanism for Reproductive Assurance*

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval & Elvia Melendez-Ackerman
Center for Applied Tropical Ecology and Conservation, University of Puerto Rico,
P.O. Box 70377, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936-8377 USA
Institute for Tropical Ecosystems Studies-Natural Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 70377,
San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936-8377 USA.


Received: 12.05.2011; Published on line: 10.06.2011


Hermaphroditism is the most common breeding system among columnar cacti. Many species have been classified as self- ncompatible depending on animals for pollination. In contrast, outside tropical areas i.e. extra tropical deserts and subtropical areas, where resources are more limited and pollinator communities are more variable, columnar cacti show a more open and generalized pollination system and they are visited and pollinated by a variety of animals, including birds, bats, and insects. The genus Harrisia comprises 20 species, all of them endemic species with limited distributions. Harrisia portoricensis is listed as a threatened species under US Federal Regulations, a status mostly attributed to habitat loss and vegetation changes due to the presence of feral goats and pigs on these islands. Present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis of wind-facilitated selfpollination in this cactus species. Based on videotaped observations, it was hypothesized that within-flower pollination would be facilitated by the rotation of their large pedunculate flowers in response to strong windy conditions on Mona Island sites. It was also hypothesized that plants growing in areas exposed to windy conditions i.e. plants growing closer to cliffs or in low canopy areas would have higher probability to set fruits than plants growing in areas protected from wind. Present observations support the occurrence of a wind facilitated pollination strategy and it plays a dominant role in the of fruit production in this cactus species.

Keywords : Cactaceae, Harrisia portoricensis, wind facilitated, self- pollination, Mona Island.



Correlation Between Sexual Reproduction in Phragmites australis and Die-back Syndrome

Lara Reale, Daniela Gigante, Flavia Landucci, Roberto Venanzoni, Francesco Ferranti
Department of Applied Biology, Borgo XX Giugno 74, 06121 Perugia, Italy


Received: 02.05.2011; Published on line: 12.06.2011


The common reed Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. (syn. P. communis Trin.) is a member of Poaceae with a widespread distribution in both the hemispheres, in different habitat types from river/lake shores, wetlands, coastlands and estuarine habitats, to ruderal, disturbed and even urban areas, hence it is considered a sub-cosmopolite species (Bjork 1967, Haslam 1973, Ostendorp 1993, Brix 1999a) In the last decades, reeds are dying back at a fast rate in sizeable areas of Europe, with significant impacts on important wetland functions (biodiversity, stability of river and lake margins, water quality) and local economy (Den Hartog et al. 1989, Van Der Putten 1997, Brix 1999b). Similar symptoms have been detected even in central Italy (Gigante et al. 2011). Besides ecological, morphological or anatomical parameters studies concerning some reproductive aspects might also be interesting in order to detect the health condition of reed-dominated ecosystems. In all the plant species the flower biology can be a good indicator of the health condition as the seed production and the seed viability. In plants exhibiting both vegetative and  sexual reproduction, the energy allocation can be shifted from one to the other strategy in response to environmental stress; it is well known that sexual reproduction decreases the vulnerability of a population to disturbances and biotic stresses by increasing the genetic variability (Lei 2010). On this ground, we took into account the reproductive features of a declining reed stand in central Italy, where the die-back syndrome was recently detected (Gigante et al. 2011), with the aims to extend knowledge on sexual reproduction in P. australis and to highlight links between sexual reproduction and die-back symptoms. In this frame, cyto- istological analyses of inflorescences at different developmental stages were carried out in permanent plots where morphological investigation and histochemical analyses were also carried out to verify pollen and seed viability. An interesting link between some decline symptoms and the rate of spikelets containing at least one viable seed was observed. In detail, it appears that higher rates of viable seeds are recorded in the declining reed stands.

Keywords : Phragmites australis, die back, flower development, pollen and seed viability



Development of Female Gametophyte in Three Species of ChlorophytumKer Gawl. (Liliaceae)

M N Shiva Kameshwari, L Rajanna & *K J Tharasaraswathi
Department of Botany, Bangalore University, Jnanabharathi Campus, Bangalore–560 056.

Department of Biotechnology, Bangalore University, Jnanabharathi Campus, Bangalore–560 056

Received: 12.01.2011; Revised 10.03.2011;
Published on line: 02.04.2011

The development of female gametophyte have been studied in three species of Chlorophytum (C. elatum C. heyneii and C.laxum) of tribe asphodeleae of Liliaceae. Embryo sac development conforms to the monosporic and polygonum type in all the three species. However, the organized mature embryo sac has a broader micropylar end and a narrow chalazal region in C. elatum and C. heynei, while in C. laxum. The chalazal end is broad and a lateral coecum is organized. These studies indicate that there is closer relationship among the 3 species. However, the shape of the embryo sac, the nature of egg apparatus, the antipodal cells and the location of secondary nucleus may be used to distinguish the species.
Keywords : Chlorophytum, female gametophyte, embryo sac


  RAPD-PCR Analysis of DNA Polymorphism among Jatropha species

Divya Sharma, Anita Rana & Seema Chauhan
Department of Botany, School of Life Sciences, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar University, Agra-282002, India

Received: 02.12.2010; Revised: 12.02.2011; Published on line: 21.04.2011


The genus Jatropha is a native of tropical America with more than 200 species that are widely distributed in tropics with a promise for use as an oil crop for biodiesel. Present investigation was carried out to assess the genetic diversity among eight accessions of four species of Jatropha viz. J. podagrica, J. integerrima, J. gossypifolia, J. curcas growing at Agra and Delhi based on random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. The results provide valid guidelines for collection, conservation and characterization of Jatropha genetic resources.

Keywords : Cluster analysis, Genetic diversity, Jatropha species, and Random primers.


  Reproductive Biology of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae)

Lalita Sharma, Anita Rana* & Seema Chauhan
Department of Botany, School of Life Sciences, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar University, Agra 282002, India

*e-mail : (corresponding author)

Received : 15.07.2010; Revised : 12.12.2010;
Published on line:


Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Rutaceae) commonly known as bael is a medium-sized deciduous tree of medicinal importance. Leaves are compound, trifoliate and leaf fall and leaf renewal occurs simultaneously. It flowers during mid April to August with optimum floral density in the months of May and June. The flowers are bisexual, greenish-white, protandrous and arranged in lateral panicles. Production of large amount of pollen, high pollenovule ratio and insect visitors especially the honey bees (Apis indica and A. dorseta) is indicative of insect pollination and out-crossing nature of this tree species. There was no fruit-set in bagged flowers eliminating the chances of self-pollination. In open pollinated flowers there was 12.5±2.5% fruit-set, 14.5±1.0% by geitonogamy and 18.25±2.5% by xenogamy. The seed-set was 29-35%.

Keywords : Aegle marmelos, floral biology, pollination biology, breeding system.



Dispersal Syndromes among Three Landscape Units in Colombian Lowland Amazonia

María Natalia Umaña, Ana Belén Hurtado, Diego Correa and Iliana Medina
Universidad de Los Andes, Laboratorio de Ecología de Bosques Tropicales y de Primatología,
Centro de Investigaciones Ecológicas La Macarena, Carrera 1
a No. 18ª- 12, Bogotá, Colombia.
Universidad de Los Andes,Grupo de Ecofisiología del Comportamiento y Herpetelogía Carrera 1a No. 18ª- 12, Bogotá, Colombia.

e-mail:; e-mail:; e-mail:;

Received: 12.03.2011;Published on line: 11. 04. 2011 Correspondence:


The prevalence of particular dispersal syndromes in tropical forests may be associated with different landscape units. We evaluated seed dispersal syndromes in three different forests in central Amazonia (Hilly and Terrace in terra firme and Igapó, a floodplain). We established three 1-ha plots at the Mosiro-ItajuraCaparú Biological Station, in each type of forest. All specimens with DBH >10 cm were marked, collected and identified. Based on literature, we built a database with the dispersal syndrome of each species collected.We predicted that each community could be evaluated as an independent forest and could be associated with certain dispersal syndromes. Contrary to what expected, we found that diversity of dispersal syndromes has an inverse relationship with floristic diversity. On the other hand, endozoochory was the most important type of dispersal syndrome among the three forests evaluated. Anemochory was also frequent among the species in the three forests, in particular, in Igapó forest. We also show evidence that, as expected, hydrochory was more frequent in floodplain than in terra firme forest. The seasonal floods in this forest type may easily explain such association. In sum, the frequency and diversity of dispersal syndromes vary among the mosaic of heterogeneous forests in the Amazonia forest and such differences may be associated with abiotic or other selective pressures that drive evolution in each landscape unit.

Keywords : Colombia, Hilly, Igapó, Terrace, dispersal syndromes, anemochory, hydrochory, endozoochory, sinzoochory
Phenological Events of Cleome viscosa L. Growing in Jammu District

Shveta Saroop & Veenu Kaul
Department of Botany, University of Jammu,Jammu–180 006, J & K (India)


Received on 01.04.2011;
Published on line: 01.05.2011


The present communication describes the phenology of plants of Cleome viscosa L. growing in Jammu District. Belonging to family Cleomaceae, Cleome viscosa is an andromonoecious, summer blooming annual herb. The plants complete their life cycle within 4-  months. Starting with seedling emergence towards last week of May, the cycle ends with seed maturation and dispersal in mid October. The plants start blooming in the last week of July with hermaphrodite flowers opening in greater numbers than the staminate ones. Anthesis and anther dehiscence are synchronous. Stigma receptivity partially overlaps with the two events. Detailed insights into the floral biology indicate the plants to be largely self-pollinated.

Keywords : Cleome viscosa, phenology, andromonoecious, life cycle, emergence.
Anther and Ovule Development in Some Acanthaceae

N. M. Labhane & N. M. Dongarwar
Department of Botany, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur -440033.


Received: 10.11.2010; Revised: 2.2.2011;
Published on line: 12.03.2011


The embryology of Justicia procumbens Linn. and Rungia repens (L.) Nees has been investigated to ascertain their systematic position. The embryological data shows close similarity between two taxa. Microsporogenesis, megagametogenesis, and seed structure show similarity and justify the inclusion of species of Rungia under Justicia.

Keywords : Acanthaceae, embryology, microsporogenesis, megagametogenesis
Carnegiea gigantea (Saguaro Cactus or a Giant Cactus)

C S Bewli
Major General, Additional Surveyor General, Northern Zone Survey of India, Chandigarh


Received: 11.05.2011
Published on line: 30.05.2011 


Carnegiea is a monotypic genus – named in honor of Andrew Carnegie, the steel magnate and philanthropist who funded some of the early research and gigantea means giant. Carnegiea gigantea (Saguaro cactus) is a super gem amongst the cactus family and a classic symbol of South West America and North Mexico. It is the dominant species of the Sonoran Desert and grows in coarse, gravelly and welldrained soil. Saguaro National Park in Arizona was established to protect this rare Sonoran desert plant. The pale white flower of saguaro cactus is Arizona’s State flower. Saguaro is a slow growing and long-lived cactus (Fig. 1). It may grow 1 to 2 inches in the first eight years of its life and does not branch until it is 50-70 years of age, but this varies depending upon water supply. Mature specimens, aged about 200 years, are often higher than 50 feet and weigh 6-7 tons. Saguaro cactus has a smooth and waxy skin which is armed with clusters of two inches stout downward pointing spines that are located on the plant’s vertical ribs, which are 20 or more in number. The pleated form of the cactus body allows it to absorb and hold a lot of water, when rainfall is plentiful and use this water during dry spells. The stem of the cactus can be 18 to 24 inches in diameter and contains about 90% water.

Phenology of Emex australis Steinh. (Polygonaceae)

Renu Bala* & Veenu Kaul
Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu (J&K) - 180 006, India

Received : 13.07.2011;
Published on line: 15.07.2011


Emex australis Steinh. is an aggressive winter annual growing obnoxiously in many parts of Jammu district along railway tracks, roadsides and wastelands. It is also found growing in many parts of the Jammu University Campus. Seeds of E. australis germinate only after experiencing 2-3 showers of winter season. Germination is highest in December and continues till February. After germination seedlings grow vegetatively for some time. Seedlings when transplanted in protected conditions (experimental plots in the Botanical Garden of University of Jammu) take at least 20-25 days to establish whereafter they grow normally. Flowering initiates at 4-5 leaf stage and continues till May. In E. australis, flowers are unisexual borne at two different sites - at the base very close to the soil surface and on the semi-erect shoots. They are accordingly referred to as basal and aerial flowers. Male flowers, about 5-7, are the first to appear at the base. Seemingly solitary in the initial stages, the male flowers assume the form of an inflorescence. Female flowers make their appearance only after all the male flowers have dehisced. Aerial flowers differentiate 3 weeks later. Here also male flowers are first to make appearance followed by female flowers. Male flowers open first in an acropetal succession along a raceme. A single male flower takes about 22 h and the entire inflorescence 19 days on an average to open completely. Anthers dehisce along a longitudinal slit, usually after but sometimes in synchrony with anthesis. An individual flower empties its contents in 5 minutes. Female flowers start blooming only after half the flowers of male inflorescence have shed pollen. Since, in female flowers the perianth is strongly ad pressed to the ovary, so the anthesis is marked by the emergence of stigmatic lobes. Results of manual pollination experiments reveal that the stigmatic lobes are receptive even when their tips have extruded so that anthesis i.e. emergence of lobes is accompanied with receptivity. Peak receptivity is found when stigmatic lobes have extruded completely. Phenological events of male and female flowers lead to protandry. This effective temporal separation accentuated by spatial separation of two sexual functions facilitates crosspollination for a brief and initial period of flowering. However, the two sexual phases overlap later and become simultaneous increasing the chances of self-pollination. The stigma withers within 26 hr of pollination following which ovary shows pronounced growth. It takes one week for these flowers to transform into fruits. Initially the fruits are green with light brown spines which later on turn dark brown at maturity. The fruits take one month to reach this stage.

Keywords : Emex australis, phenology, protandry, selfpollination,cross-pollination.
Anthesis and Anther Dehiscence in Allium roylei Stearn

Beetika Kohli* and Veenu Kaul
Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu(J&K) - 180 006.


Received: 15.07.2011;
Published on line: 16.07.2011


Allium roylei Stearn (Alliaceae) is distributed in the Himalayan and sub – Himalayan ranges; Garwhal westwards between 6000 – 000 ft. It is also found in the eastern Hindu Kush mountains of Pakistan and Afghanistan. It is a wild perennial herb having underground bulbs and a distinct rhizome, propagation occurs mainly by vegetative means. Flowering is initiated in the first week of April and continues till the end of August. Plants usually differentiate a single hollow scape on which flowers are borne in a cymose umbel. The scape bears numerous buds that are enclosed in a translucent, dull white covering termed as spathe. This covering ruptures at maturity and its remnants keep attached to the scape. Inflorescence is hemispherical in appearance with bulbils interspersed with flowers in some. Anthesis is initiated in the morning as well as evening hours in a sequential manner. Floral expansion leads to the unfolding of one tepal and slight opening of the floral bud. After about 1:30h one stamen extrudes out and dehisce. By this time rest of the floral bud has not expanded fully neither has all the tepals unfolded. Once this anther empties its contents floral bud expands to a greater extent and all other stamens are extruded out. Now, the anthers appear to be at two levels i.e. three with long filaments and three with short filaments. In each case dehiscence is correlated with an increase in the length of filament. Once the filaments attain maximum length, all the remaining anthers dehisce. The entire event takes about 22 - 24 h. Dehiscence is lateral and in a sequential manner. A single flower takes about 8 – 10 h to open completely and survives for 5 – 6 days. The first flower during this season bloomed on May 3, 2011.

Keywords : Allium roylei, anthesis, anther dehiscence,sequential.
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