The International Journal of Plant Reproductive Biology
(Indexed by CABI)
ISSN Print : 0975-4296; ISSN Online : 2249-7390
Volume-3, Number-1, January 2011

Studies on the Reproductive Behaviour of Marchantia palmata Nees. Growing at Jammu (J&K)

Reema Arora & Anima Langer*
Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu -180 006, J&K.



Seven accessions of M. palmata from Jammu city and its outskirts were studied for morpho-ecological details and reproduction. Out of the seven accessions, only two completed their life cycle by means of sexual reproduction while others either did not produce any receptacles or if produced these, did not form sporophytes. Spore/elater ratio came out to be 2.3-2.9:1, far less than the one expected for Marchantialian taxa.

Keywords : Reproduction, bryophytes, hepatics.


Gametophytes and Young Sporophytes of Pentarhizidium orientalis (Hook.) Hayata (Onocleaceae),
a Rare Fern in Taiwan

Yao-Moan Huang1, Yea-Chen Liu2, Pi-Fong Lu3, Wen-Liang Chiou4,*
1Department of Silviculture, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, 53, Nanhai Rd., Taipei 10066, Taiwan
2Department of Biological Resources, National Chiayi University, 300, Syuefu Rd., Chiayi City 60004, Taiwan
3Taiwan Society of Plant Systematics, 88, Ting-Chow Rd., Sec 4, Taipei 11677, Taiwan
*4Department of Botanical Garden, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, 53, Nanhai Rd., Taipei 10066, Taiwan;  


Pentarhizidium orientalis is a rare species with only a few populations located in the northeastern regions of Taiwan. To conserve this species in Taiwan, characters related to its reproductive biology were observed in this study. The sporophyte was diploid with 80 chromosomes per root tip cell. There were 64 spores per sporangium. Fresh and stored spores were sown and the development of the resulting gametophytes was recorded. All (100%) fresh spores germinated within one week of sowing. For spores stored 15 weeks at 4oC, the germination rate was only 28.2% two weeks after they were sown. Gametophyte development was of the Adiantum-type. Mature gametophytes were heart shape with hairs on the margin and both surfaces. Antheridia and archegonia began to form 5 weeks after spores were sown and were of the Leptosporangiate-type. Sixty four sperms per antheridium were observed and are first reported. After 9 weeks in culture, all gametophytes became sexual, being male, female, or hermaphroditic. Young sporophytes began to form after 12-weeks culture. After one year in culture, 8% of gametophytes produced sporophytes. Those young gametophytes were protruded from archegonia with midrib-less first fronds and were determined to be reproduced sexually.

Keywords : gametophyte, Pentarhizidium orientalis, ploidy, reproductive biology



Pollination in the deceptive species Bignonia corymbosa

Bignonia corymbosa (Bignoniaceae): A plant who deceives their floral visitors

María Natalia Umańa (,2, Pablo R. Stevenson (, Suzana Alcantara ( and Lúcia G. Lohmann (
1 Universidad de Los Andes, Laboratorio de Ecología de Bosques Tropicales y de Primatología, Centro de Investigaciones Ecológicas La Macarena, Carrera 1a No. 18Ş- 12, Bogotá, Colombia.2 Universidade de Săo Paulo, Instituto de Biocięncias, Departamento de Botânica, Rua do Matăo 277, Cidade Universitária, Săo Paulo, SP, CEP 05508-090, Brazil.Correspondence: María Natalia Umańa ( and Lúcia G. Lohmann ( This paper is part of under-graduate thesis of MNU Medina.


The lack of a nectar disc in representatives of some lineages of Bignonieae (Bignoniaceae) has led to the suggestion that deceit pollination might be present in those taxa. Here, we studied Bignonia corymbosa, and tested whether this species presents a deceit pollination system. For that, we examined: (1) nectar production, (2) the reproductive biology of B. corymbosa, (3) the importance of selected flower traits for the attraction of flower visitors, and (4) the effect of floral display for the frequency of floral visits to B. corymbosa. As expected, no evidence of nectar production was found. We further determined that B. corymbosa is self-incompatible and employs a generalized deception strategy, with petals representing an important cue for the attraction of floral visitors. Xylocopinae and Apis mellifera were found to represent the main potential pollinators. We conclude that B. corymbosa presents all characteristics that are necessary to support a deceptive strategy as a pollination mechanism.

Keywords : Apidae; Bignonia corymbosa; floral display; nectar; deceptive pollination.



Floral Biology Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall. (Ericaceae)  in Meghalaya, Northeast India

N. Venugopal &  Wympher Langstang
Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany, Department of Botany,North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong-793 022, India



Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall. (Ericaceae)  is commonly distributed at higher elevation about 1500 m asl., particularly under pine forests and open places in Meghalaya. During the course of present study this species was found to be distinctly gynodioeciuos and entomophilous. The population, at Lum Shyllong showed 80% hermaphrodite plants while, the population at Nongkrem showed 60% hermaphrodite and 40% male sterile plants. The flowers are white, puberlous, arranged axially in racemes; calyx white deeply five lobes, ciliate; corolla ovoid, urceolate, teeth very small, reflexed; stamens 10, epipetalous, filaments pilose; anthers red when young, each lobe with two apical setaceous horns; ovary 5-celled , 10-grooved,  pubescent; ovules many in each locule, deeply pink. Comparisons of various floral traits of male sterile and hermaphrodite flowers growing at two sites (Lum Shyllong and Nongkrem) showed significant differences in the length of pedicel and calyx; breadth of bracts, corolla, gynoecium and number of insects visits particularly thrips. Male sterile flowers have vestigial, non-functional anthers on short filaments. On the other hand, the fertile and hermaphrodite flowers anthers were well developed and their pollen grains were 75% viable.

Keywords : Gaultheria fragrantissima, gynodioecious, hermaphrodite, male sterility, pollen viability



Nectary Structure and Nectar Production of Various Datura species

Ágnes Farkas1, András Kerchner2, Helga Déri3, Borbála Boros4, Judit Darók2
1University of Pécs, Medical School, Department of Pharmacognosy, 7624 Pécs, Rókus u. 2., Hungary; e-mail:
University of Pécs, Faculty of Science, Institute of Biology, Department of Plant Systematics and Geobotany, 7624 Pécs, Ifjúság u. 6., Hungary
Hungarian Academy of Science, Szent István University, H-2103 Gödöllő, Páter K. u. 1., Hungary
University of Pécs, Faculty of Science, Institute of Viticulture and Oenology, Department of Oenology, 7634 Pécs, Pázmány P. u. 4., Hungary


The genus Datura (thorn-apple) is widespread in Asia, Europe and America, comprising noxious weeds and ornamentals alike. The trumpet-shaped flowers provide good pollen and nectar sources for various insects. However, each plant part of Datura species contains tropane alkaloids that may cause severe intoxication.
In order to elucidate the potential role of Datura floral nectar in the foraging activity of pollinators and to assess the risk of consuming floral secretory products, nectar volume, sugar concentration and the composition of floral nectar, as well as the structure of the nectary were studied in various Datura species.
The automorphic, disc-shaped nectary is located at the base of the ovary. Nectar is secreted through meso- or hygromorphic stomata. In the apical region of the nectary multi-cellular glandular trichomes can be observed. The glandular tissue consists of small, polygonal cells, arranged in rows in the outer part of the gland, while in the inner part glandular cells are scattered among the larger parenchyma cells. In the nectary parenchyma sand crystals can be observed. The nectary is supplied by both phloem and xylem.
Nectar volumes vary in a wide range depending on the species, reaching 25 μl/flower in small-flowered species like D. quercifolia and D. stramonium and up to 150 μl/flower in large-flowered species, such as D. innoxia and D. metel. Total sugar concentration and the ratio of sucrose, fructose and glucose vary between and even within the species – depending on floral phenology. Nectar sugar composition covers the spectrum from hexose dominant to sucrose dominant in various thorn-apple species. Pollinators are attracted by a variety of rewards, i.e. large volumes of nectar with low sugar concentrations that might be sufficient for hawkmoth species (Sphingidae) and abundant pollen that attracts even pollinators that are not able to reach nectar at the bottom of the long tubular flowers, e.g. certain bee species (Apidae).

The characteristic alkaloids of Datura species – atropine and scopolamine – can also be detected in the floral nectar. These active principles may reach the level of toxicity in the case of large-flowered thorn-apple species like D. innoxia and D. metel.

Keywords : alkaloid, Datura, nectar, nectary, pollinator, Solanaceae, thorn-apple



A Unique Mode of Autogamy in Flickingeria calocephala Tsi & Chen (Orchidaceae)

S.K.Chaturvedi and Shonali Chaturvedi*
Department of Botany, Nagaland University, Lumami- 798 627, Nagaland and *Department of Botany, Ewing Christian College, Allahabad- 211003, India
e-mail: and


A unique mode of abiotic pollination has been recorded in an ephemeral orchid Flickingeria calocephala Tsi & Chen at Mokokchung district of Nagaland (North-East India). Flowers remain open for about four to five hours in the morning. Indirect autogamy due to the enfolding of lip’s lamellae, in the flowers of F. calocephala, has been observed for the first time. Around 20% of the flowers produced fruits by successful self- pollination. No biotic visitor/pollinator has been observed on the flowers during anthesis.

Keywords : Flickingeria calocephala Tsi & Chen, Indirect autogamy, infolding, lip’s lamellae



Identification And Characterization of Self-Incompatibility Factors in Brunfelsia americana L.(Solanaceae)

R.S. Nisha Raj & P.M. Radhamany*
Department of Botany, University of Kerala, Kariavattom,
Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India-695581


Brunfelsia americana L. (Solanaceae), is an evergreen shrub, native to tropical America.  In India it is grown as an exotic ornamental plant.  Its flowers are white in colour with pleasant odour, which turns yellow in subsequent days.  Hence it is known as ‘Lady-of-the-night’. From the preliminary analysis, it is found that gametophytic self-incompatibility is operating in this plant and it was overcome by bud-pollination.  In the present study, analyses were made to explore the incompatibility factors present in the pistil. For this, comparative protein profiling of pistils at various developmental stages was done and found that intensity of protein band at 74kDa gradually increases from the early developmental stages of the bud and reaches the maximum on the day of anthesis. In vitro assay and spectrophotometric analysis were carried out to find out the S-RNase activity in the pistil at various developmental stages and found that S-RNase activity in the pistils gradually increases with age.  From this study it can be concluded that S-RNase based gametophytic self-incompatibility system is operating in B. americana.

Keywords : Brunfelsia americana, gametophytic self-incompatibility,
                  Lady-of-the-night, Pistil,   S-RNase.



Observations on Reproductive Biology of Madhuca longifolia (Koen) Macbr.

J.A. Tidke** & S.B. Thorat*
Department of Botany, Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati (M.S.) 444602 (India)
*Bar. R.D. I.K. and  K.D. College, Badnera, Amravati (M.S.)

** e-mail:


This paper discusses the reproductive biology, flower visitor dynamics and dominant mode of reproduction in Madhuca longifolia. The observations on different aspects involved are undertaken during the year 2003 to 2005. Maximum pollen production was found to be 486235.20 + 93174.13 during the year 2003. Pollen viability was found to be 97.89 - 95.96 % during the study period. In vivo pollen germination was found to be 27.27% and in vitro was maximum 46.66 % in 50% sucrose solution. Pollen ovule: ratio was found to be in the range of 59249.67 to 81039.20. The flower visitors of Madhuca longifolia include bees and birds. Amongst the bees were A. dorsata, A. florae, A.indica black colour bees, and small bees. Bird visitors were Dicrurus macrocercus, Corvus splendens, Psittacula krameri, and Pycnonotus cafer. Funambulus palmarum, syrphidae, ants, beetle, Xylocopa sp. also visit the flower occasionally. The dominant foragers were bees and birds.

Keywords : Phenology, Production, insect behaviour, Madhuca longifolia




Department of Botany, School of Life Sciences,
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar University, Agra 282002 (INDIA)


Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet (Malvaceae) is a perennial shrub of 1 to 2 m height. The leaf fall and leaf renewal occurs throughout the year with maximum leaf fall in the months of December, January and June, and minimum in the months of October and April. Maximum leaf renewal was observed during the months of February to March and July, while the minimum leaf renewal occurs in the months of January and May. Flowering throughout the year with maximum during the months of October & November and February & March. The flowers open at noon during summers and in the afternoon during winters. The flowers are slightly protandrous as the anthers dehisce a little earlier that stigma becomes receptive. Pollen grains are spherical, spiny, 3-colpate and 80±13.06µm in diameter. Ovary superior, multicarpellary, syncarpous, and multilocular with one ovule in each locule on axile placenta. Stigma is capitate with large number of loosely arranged small papillae. Floral density, pollen production, extent of pollen viability, ovules/flower, P/O ratio, pollinators and fruit-set percentage was considerably reduced by rise or fall in temperature. The plants exhibited highest pollen viability (65.5­±7.7% & 70.1±8.2%) in the months of February and March, respectively (with temperature ranging between 11.9-35.6°C), and maximum fruit-set (95±9.1%) was recorded in the month of March (17.5şC-35.6şC). On the other hand, pollen viability was minimum in the months of May (35.1±4.5 %) and June (24.5±3.4%) when the temperature was highest (27.9-43.6°C) and fruit-set in the months of May and June was 20±3.5 and 13±2.8% respectively. Similarly, when the temperature was lowest (7.3-18.4°C) in the month of January, the plants exhibited only 36.7±8.5% pollen viability and 31±7.5% fruit-set.

Keywords : Abutilon indicum, phenology, floral biology, pollen biology and
                  pollination biology



Floral  Morphology of Four Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Lines of Gossypium hirsutum (L.)

H.K. Gupta &  S.V.S.Chauhan
Department of Botany, School of Life Sciences, Dr.  B.R.Ambedkar University. Agra-282002, India
 Academy of Life Sciences, 8/13 I Kaushalpur Bye Pass Road, Agra-282005, India



Floral morphology of four CMS lines of Gossypium hirsutum namely, Laxmi, BN, K2 and C-119 was compared with their maintainers and two restorer lines (Dem I and Dem III). The general morphological traits of CMS lines, their maintainers and restorers were more or less similar. CMS lines (Laxmi, BN and K2) showed early flowering, while flowering in the maintainer lines was delayed. The flower size and colour in CMS and their maintainer and restorer lines exhibited some differences. The androecium and gynoecium showed various abnormalities.  The anthers of male sterile lines were fewer in number, smaller in size, shrunken, pale yellow, indehiscent and possessed deformed pollen grains. On the other hand, the anthers in fertile lines were yellowish orange, dehiscent and well developed. The CMS lines were 100% male sterile and their maintainer and restorer lines exhibited 88.8 to 93.4 % pollen fertility. The flowers of CMS lines exhibited forked stigma and twisted style. In the maintainer (Laxmi and BN) and restorer line (Dem I), the stigma was four lobed and covered with dense papillae, while in maintainer line C-119, and restorer line (Dem III), the stigma was three lobed.

Keywords : Gossypium hirsutum,  cytoplasmic male sterility, floral morphology.


Effect of Cold Pretreatment on Anther culture of Boro Rice Hybrids

Chaitali Sen*, R.P.Singh*, M.K. Singh* & H.B. Singh*
*Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Institute of Agricultural Sciences.

Banaras   Hindu University-Varanasi- 221005
**Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural Science,
Banaras Hindu University-Varanasi- 221005



Effect of cold pretreatment on callus induction and plant regeneration in anther culture of boro rice hybrids of by in Krishna Hansa x BPT 5204, Krishna Hansa x NDR 359, IR 64 x MTU 7029 and IR 64 x Jaya for varying number of days was studied.  Callus induction and plant regeneration was significantly affected by the genotype and the length of cold pretreatment. Twelve days of cold pretreatment was most effective for callus induction in all the hybrids except IR 64 x MTU 7029. Green plant regeneration was enhanced by six days of cold pretreatment to the panicles. The hybrids of Krishna Hansa x NDR 359 and Krishna Hansa x BPT 5204 were more responsive to green plant regeneration and therefore, can be further exploited for doubled haploid breeding.

Keywords : Anther culture, cold pretreatment, boro rice, callus induction.




S. K. Lavania, Virendra Singh, A. K. Singh & Birendra Prasad
College of Forestry & Hill Agriculture, Hill Campus
G.B.P.U.A&T., Ranichauri, Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India -249 199
e-mail: sujeet

In Himalayan region, coniferous forests constitute valuable resources and play an important role in the economic upliftment of the people by providing a variety of goods and services. Conifers not only provide timber, industrial raw material, firewood, charcoal and innumerable non timber products like resins, oils, fruits, flowers, etc. but also several intangible benefits such as maintenance of climate, air purification, soil stabilization and moisture conservation, reduction in the intensity of flash floods and regulation of stream flow, stipulation of aesthetic and recreational values etc. Prominent conifers of this region are Abies pindrow, Cedrus deodara, Picea smithiana, Pinus roxburghii, Pinus wallichiana, etc. Reliable guidelines of maturity greatly help in the collection of fruits/cones and seeds that allow the earliest possible collection. Present study has been conducted to assess the impact of cone collection time on cone and seed characteristics in important conifer tree species. The first cone collection was done on 15th September, second on 30th September, third on 15th October and fourth on 30th October from Uttarkashi Forest Division of Garhwal Himalayas. The results revealed that the cone specific gravity decreased from first to final collection date while number of fertile scales/cone and percentage of fertile scales/cone ranged from 58.10 to 63.69 and 81.28 to 85.33 and were statistically at par with each other. Percentage of empty seeds/cone for different cone collection dates were found statistically non significant. Percentage of viable seeds/cone increased as the cone collection dates progressed, while percentage of non-viable seeds/cone decreased with the maturity of cone.
Keywords : cone, seed, conifers  
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