The International Journal of Plant Reproductive Biology
(Indexed by CABI)
ISSN Print : 0975-4296; ISSN Online : 2249-7390

Volume-13, Number-2, July, 2021

Some features of anther wall formation and microsporogenesis in tetraploid maize

Voronova O.N. , Babro A.A. and Shatskaya O.A.
1Laboratory Embryology and reproductive biology, Komarov Botanical Institute,
Prof. Popova str., 2, St. Petersburg, 197376, Russia

e-mail :,
2 Federal State Budget Scientific Organization
“National Center of Grain named after P.P. Lukyanenko”
Central Estate KNIISH, Krasnodar, Krasnodar Territory, 350012, Russia

*e-mail :
Received: 23.02.2021; Revised: 10.03. 2021: Accepted and published online: 01.04.2012

Maize (Zea mays L.) is the world’s third plant among the bread cereals by its economic value. Compared to diploid maize, tetraploid one has heavier vegetative mass, larger caryopsis, better seeds’ quality and resistance to unfavorable factors but the abnormalities in reproductive structures’ development may cause the decrease in grain productivity. As material for studies, we used autotetraploid lines ATL1280 and ATL1180, and population Krasnodarskaya TetraI of maize. Development of male reproductive sphere in three objects under investigation generally passes in a similar way and was resemble to diploid maize. The stamens in maize are tetrasporangiate; the locules are associated pairwise in two thecae. The formed anther wall consists of four layers: epidermal layer, fibrous one (endothecium), middle layer and tapetum. The type of anther wall development corresponds to the III type Umbellifera or Monocotyledonous type. Microspore formation proceeds according to successive type. As a result of meiosis, we observed the formation of not only isobilateral tetrads of microspores, which is typical for maize in general, but also tetrahedral ones. Abnormalities in shape of microsporocytes, microspores, pollen grains may be caused by their relative position in the anther and by deviations in the course of meiosis. The first reason – “positional” one – is connected with the features of growth and relative positions of microsporocytes in anther. It leads some of them to take atypical shape (trapezoidal, angulated, with elongated tip). The second reason – “mechanical” – is that some microsporocytes stay attached to callose column in the center of locule and hangs as a drop on it. Such a position of microsporocytes leads the cell to take a shape with strongly elongated tip. The third one – “meiotic” – is aligned with disturbances in meiotic divisions. These deviations lead to changes in cytoplasm’s allocation within the microsporocyte and to formation of irregular tetrads, pentads, etc. and break the isobilateral symmetry of cells. The abnormalities observed probably are the consequence of the tetraploid nature of the lines studied and cause violation of male fertility and a decrease in grain productivity, which is characteristic to some tetraploid maize lines.
Keywords : Zea mays L., tetraploids, anther wall formation, microsporocytes, abnormalities
Volume : 13 (2) pp. 95 - 102, 2021 Download PDF

Reproductive features and in vitro pollinia germination in Holostemma ada-kodien Schult, a RET species

D. Devipriya* and P. M. Radhamany
1. Department of Botany, Sree Narayana College for Women Kollam- 691001 Kerala India
2. Department of Botany, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram-695581, India

*e- mail :
Received : 03.03.2021; Revised: 14.03. 2021


Holostemma ada-kodien Schult. belonging to the sub family Asclepiadoideae of family Apocynaceae was traditionally used for various ailments and to maintain vitality. The unscientific way of collection of root tubers and leaves for ayurvedic drug preparation leads to the population depletion in the wild. Self incompatibility was another problem which delimit its widespread. The present work is to analyze the reproductive behavior of plant by studying the structure and behavior of pollinarium in in vitro and in vivo conditions, stigma receptivity and in vivo pollen germination. The best medium for the germination of pollen was identified as Brewbakers medium with 25% sucrose. Macromorphology of fruits and seeds, micromorphology of ovary and ovule and the structure of pollinaria and arrangement of ovule in ovary using SEM were also studied. The data collected are very important for further breeding programmes.

Keywords : Asclepiadoideae, Holostemma ada-kodien Schult, pollinium, Brewbakers medium, pollen tube, abortive ovary.
Volume : 13 (2) pp. 103 - 108, 2021 Download PDF

The ecological role of alkaloids during reproductive stages of angiosperms: an overview

Sandra Rios-Carrasco 1,3and Ricardo A.González-Hernández2, 3
Laboratorio de Desarrollo en Plantas, Departamento de Biología Comparada, Facultad de Ciencias,
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, CP. 04510, México.

Departamento de Biología Molecular y Biotecnología, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas,
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, CP. 04510, México.

Posgrado en Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,
Ciudad deMéxico, 04510, México
Corresponding author
: e-mail:
Received:06. 03. 2021; Revised: 12. 05. 2021: Accepted and published online: 01.06.2021


Alkaloids are secondary metabolites whose primary biological function has been related as a chemical defense mechanism. Although its ecological role is widely studied in herbivory, its importance during reproductive phases has been neglected. Since flowering and fruiting are fundamental phases in perpetuating angiosperms, alkaloids' ecological role during these stages is summarized here. Besides, the dual role as deterrent and as attractant in biotic interactions such as pollination and dispersal, is highlighted.

Keywords : attractant, chromoalkaloids, defense, dispersal, pollination
Volume : 13 (2) pp. 109 - 116, 2021 Download PDF

Pollination mechanisms in Hippophae rhamnoides L. (Elaeagnaceae) and its implication in orchard management of seabuckthorn in Kargil (Ladakh)

Amjad Ali and Sonam Tamchos
Govt. Degree College, Drass, Kargil, 194102, India
Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu-180006, India

*e-mail :
Received: 15. 03. 2021; Revised: 12. 05.202; Accepted and published online: 01. 06. 2021
Govt. Degree College, Drass, Kargil, 194102, India


Hippophae rhamnoides L. commonly known as sea-buckthorn belongs to the family Elaeagnaceae is a spiny deciduous multipurpose shrub. It is predominantly dioecious bearing male and female flowers on separate individuals and some rare cases of hermaphrodites and polygamomonoecious are also known. Pollination studies play important role in the cultivation techniques for improvement of crops. Such studies are useful in designing and managing an orchard. In the light of this, the present study has been undertaken and highlighted some interesting aspect of the pollination mechanism in this highly economically important plant which can be readily be utilized for its orchard management.

Keywords :pollination, hanging slide experiment; dioecy.
Volume : 13 (2) pp. 117 - 121, 2021 Download PDF

Floral biology, pollination mechanism and breeding system in Milletia pinnata (L.) Panigrahi (Fabaceae)

Alpna Johri
J. D. B. Govt. Girls College, Kota-324001, India
Received; 20.02.2021; Revised: 04. 05. 2021; Accepted and published online: 01. 06. 2021


Milletia pinnata syn. Pongamia pinnata (L.) is one of the few nitrogen fixing trees commercially known as Karanj. The seeds of the plant produce 30-35 % oil, is called Karanj oil or Honge oil. It is being considered as an alternative source for biodiesel. Its root, bark, leaf and flower of the tree have medicinal properties. It is an ornamental perennial tree. Its flowers are pentamerous, hermaphrodite and complete. Phenological studies indicate that it flowers twice in a year, in late spring to early summer and in autumn. First flush of flowers occurs in March-April and extend up to May and a second flush of flowers occurs in September to November. Anthesis occurs between 07:00 h-07:30 h. Papilionaceous structure of flower facilitates selfpollination but white tinged with pink or purple flowers displayed in pendulous raceme and sweet fragrance attract several visitors. P/O ratio is 25,625. High P/O ratio in this plant indicates that species is xenogamous. Fruits are hard, thick, almond coloured indehiscent pod which remain attached to the trees and fall down in April to July of the next year.

Keywords : Karanj, Anthesis, Biodiesel, Hermaphrodite, Phenology.
Volume : 13 (2) pp. 122 - 126, 2021 Download PDF

Frequency and efficiency of nocturnal and diurnal capitulum visitors in the reproduction of Grazielia intermedia (Asteraceae)

Kelen Coelho Cruz1, Adriano Valentin-Silva2*and Milene Faria Vieira
1Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Avenida P.H. Rolfs,
s/nº, 36570-900, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
2Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Botânica, Avenida Antônio
Carlos, 6627, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

*e-mail :
Received: 25. 05. 2021; Revised: 11.06. 2021; Accepted and published online: 15.06.2021

Nocturnal and diurnal pollination of the same species is rare in Asteraceae. Visitation of nocturnal and diurnal insects has been recorded in florests of Grazielia intermedia during preliminary observations. Therefore, our goal was to assess the frequency and efficiency of visitors. We observed capitulum night visitors from 1800 h to 2200 h and daytime visitors from 0700 h to 1800 h and calculated their visitation frequency. We bagged capitula either during the evening or during the day to compare fruit production resulting from diurnal and nocturnal visitors. Grazielia intermedia presented capitulum visitors from 149 species (45 nocturnal and 104 diurnal). Lepidoptera were the most abundant visitors (91.9% of species) and the most frequent visitors (90.9%). The foraging peak of nocturnal pollinators was between 1900 h and 2000 h, and diurnal pollinators from 0900 h to 1000 h and 1400 h to 1500 h. There was no statistical difference in fruiting between night- and day-pollinated plants treatments (57.6% ± 20.9 and 32.4% ± 26.2, respectively), and both groups of visitors acted as pollinators. Our results illustrate the possibility of other Asteraceae species exhibiting the same pollination system recorded here, especially those that occur in altered habitats.
Keywords : Lepidoptera, moths, phalaenophily, pollination, psicophily.
Volume : 13 (2) pp. 127 - 133, 2021 Download PDF
  Terminology for the Orchid pollination in North- East India

S. K. Chaturvedi* and Bhaskar Buragohain**
*23-19/1, C.Y. Chintamani Road, Allahabad-211002, India
**Department of Botany, Mariani College, Mariani, Assam, India

*Corresponding author e-mail:
Received: 01.06.2012; Revised: 07. 06. 2021; Accepted and published: 15.06.2021


Anthecological studies on some wild orchids, viz., Aerides odorata, A. rosea, Calanthe sylvatica, Coelogyne nitida , C. corymbosa, Dendrobium devonianum, D. primulinum, D. densiflorum, D. fimbriatum, D. jenkinsii, D. chrysotoxum and D. moschatum, Flickingeria fugax, Paphiopedilum insigne, Phaius tankervilleae , Pholidota articulata and Rhynchostylis retusa of Assam and Nagaland states of North- east India have been made during last 15 years i.e. 2005 to 2020. The present paper is the compilation of previously reported terminology for the pollination of various orchids through the different body parts of the insects, viz. fore -head and thorax and a new report of pollination through the mouth-parts of these insect visitors called “Probonotribic pollination.”

Keywords : Terminology, Orchid pollination, North- East India, Anthecology, Frontotribic, Probonotribic, and Thoraxinotribic,
Volume : 13 (2) pp. 134 - 137, 2021 Download PDF
  B-chromosomes in Woody and Arborescent Angiosperm plants – A Review

Elena N. Muratova
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Federal
Research Center «Krasnoyarsk Science Center SB RAS», Akademgorodok 50/28,
Krasnoyarsk, 660036, Russia

Received: 01. 06. 2021; Accepted and published online: 20.06.2012


Literature on B-chromosomes in woody and arborescent Angiosperms has been reviewed. Among this group of plants supernumerary chromosomes are reported in representatives of 60 families and more than 330 species.Three families include the largest number of species with B chromosomes: Fabaceae (more than 80), Asteraceae (more than 70), Lamiaceae (more than 20). The number of Bs in woody and arborescent angiosperms varies from 1 to 10. Among woody plants with B-chromosomes there are trees, shrubs, subshrubs, lianas and climbing vines. As usual B-chromosomes are smaller than A-chromosomes and can be different types in morphology. The role of B-chromosomes in evolution and adaptation is discussed.

Keywords : B-chromosomes, additional chromosomes, supernumerary chromosomes, A-chromosomes, karyotype, angiosperms, woody plants.
Volume : 13 (2) pp. 138 - 163, 2021 Download PDF
  Chemical and structural colours in flowers and the photonics – A Review

Inderdeep Kaur
Department of Botany, Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Khalsa College, University of Delhi,
Delhi-110 007 India

*e-mail :
Received: 01. 05. 2021; Revised: 08.06.2021; Accepted and published online: 15.06. 2021


Flowering plants display bright colours and different hues to attract pollinators. Colours, the visual signals for the pollinators, arise out of selective absorption of specific wavelengths of light by pigments such as carotenoids, anthocyanins and betalains. While anthocyanins and betalains are present in the vacuolar sap of petal cells, carotenoids which are essential in photosynthesis are present in chloroplasts. However, in non- green parts such as flowers, carotenoids accumulate in chromoplasts and impart vivid colours to the petals. The light is selectively reflected, absorbed, and transmitted by the chemicals in the cell. Some of the light is scattered at air/water/cell-wall interfaces of the petal cells. This scattered light enables plants also to produce structural colours with effects like iridescence. Some of the photonic structures found in petal epidermal cells and cuticle lead to optic effects that produce amazing iridescent colours generally brighter than the pigment-based colour. Flower pigments in some plants are also known to exhibit fluorescence; whether it is a trait to attract pollinators is however, not well documented. Flower pigments which produce colours with a role in pollination, are being investigated for a protective role against UV radiations. In combating effects of climate change and ozone depletion, flowers have developed UV-absorbing pigments. The discovery of natural photonic structures in flowers has enabled nano-scientists to engineer photonic crystals (PCs) and artificial colours with several applications. Novel materials like Cellulosic Nanocrystals (CNCs) used in sensors and optoelectronic devices, are also inspired by the photonic structures. This review gives a concise account of the range of chemical and structural flower colours which have inspired several advances in the field of nanotechnology.

Keywords :Anthocyanins, betalains, fluorescent pigments, iridescence, nanocrystals, photonic structures

Volume : 13 (2) pp. 164 - 175, 2021 Download PDF

Pollination types and plant reproductive systems of two areas of Venezuelan cloud forests

Nelson Ramírez and Herbert Briceño
Universidad Central de Venezuela, Facultad de Ciencias, Instituto de Biología Experimental,
Centro de Botánica Tropical. Caracas 1041-A, Venezuela

Received :Received: 12.03. 2021; Revised: 25.06.2021; Accepted and published online: 01.07. 2021


The breeding system, sexual system, temporal variation in sex expression and herkogamy and their relation with functional groups and disturbance were investigated in two areas of cloud forests in Venezuela. Pollination types were associated with successional stage and forest area. Bee pollination was the most frequent pollination type in undisturbed areas and both cloud forest localities; however, the percentage of plant species pollinated by bees was remarkably higher in the Altos Pipe than Henri Pittier forest. On the contrary, moth, beetle and bird pollinated species were higher in the Henri Pittier than Alto Pipe forest. Of the 125 plant species, 69.6% were hermaphroditic, 16.0% were monoecious, and 14.4% were dioecious, however, monoecy and dioecy varied considerably according cloud forest area: dioecy was higher in the Altos Pipe forest, while monoecy was higher in Henri Pittier forest. Adichogamy was higher than dichogamy for hermaphrodite and monoecious species in both forest areas. Herkogamous (91.2%) was higher than non-herkogamous species Many protandrous species tends to have dry fruits and protogynous species fleshy fruits. Outbreeding systems were the most abundant in the plant species studied: no agamospermy (94.7%), non-spontaneous self-pollination (52.3%; 34/65), and xenogamy (61.7%; 37/60) followed by mixed breeding systems, partial spontaneous self-pollination and partial xenogamy. Partial self-incompatibility (59.6%; 31/52) was the higher than selfincompatibility (28.8%; 15/52). Not spontaneous self-pollination, xenogamy and self-incompatibility were mostly shrubs, while mixed breeding systems, partial spontaneous self-pollination and partial xenogamy, and partial self-incompatibility were more abundant in herbaceous life form. Additionally, self-incompatibility index categories were significant associated with fruit texture, self-incompatibility bore mainly fleshy fruits. Accordingly, outbreed is the main form of reproduction in the cloud forest areas, including a representative number of plant species with mixed breeding strategies.

Keywords : Breeding system, community, cloud forest, dichogamy, disturbed areas, herkogamy, life form, pollination, sexual system, Venezuela
Volume : 13 (2) pp. 176 - 197, 2021 Download PDF

Pollen morphology of two cultivars of Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. (Cucurbitaceae)

Rashmi Komal
Department of Botany, Patna Science College, Patna University, Patna-800005, India

e-mail :
Received: 22.02.2021, Revised: 10. 03. 2021; Accepted and published online: 01. 04. 2021



The genus Trichosanthes includes over 90-100 species of which 22 occur in India (Boer et al. 2012). It is placed in tribe Sicyoeae, of family Cucurbitaceae, (Scharfer and Renner 2009, Renner and Pandey 2013). Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. (pointed gourd) commonly known as parwal/patal in India, is one of the most important and expensive summer vegetable crops and holds a coveted position in the Indian market during the summer and rainy season. It is one of the most important medicinal as well as nutritional cucurbitaceous vegetables. Pointed gourd is rated as a nutritious food rich in vitamins like vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and vitamin C (Roy and Mani 2020). Besides its nutritional value, parwal is well known for its medicinal value too (Anonymous 1976). Fruits are globose, oblong, smooth, striped or non-striped with either pointed or blunt ends. The young fruits are deep green in colour. The fruits become orange red after ripening. The crop is of Indo-Malayan origin and distribution, and is extensively grown in eastern India (Chakravarthy 1982). It is extensively grown in Eastern India and to a lesser extent in other parts of South Asia. It is said to be the native of South East Asia and probably the Northern and Eastern states of India, especially, of Bengal, Assam and Bihar (Nath and Subramanyam 1972) and has high economic value with export potential. Bihar is the largest producer of this crop. There are 15 cultivars mainly cultivated along the riverine belts of Bihar (Pandey 2000). It is propagated by stem or root cuttings, as the plants raised with seeds are weak with small leaves and take 2-3 years to fruit.
Keywords : Cucurbitaceae, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., pollen morphology, acetolysis.
Volume : 13 (2) pp. 198 - 200, 2021 Download PDF

Reproductive phases in Girishia indica Prabhuji link connection between families of Pythiaceae and Saprolegniaceae

Shakti K. Prabhuji* and Gaurav K. Srivastava
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Centre, M.G. Post Graduate College,
Gorakhpur – 273001, India

*Corresponding author e-mail:
Received: 02.06. 2021; Accepted and published online: 15.06.2021


A new member of family Saprolegniaceae – Girishia indica Prabhuji has been described and explained. G. indica exhibits well defined reproductive phases and indicates certain typical characteristics of its own. Vegetative structures and development of reproductive stages shows its alliance with family Saprolegniaceae whereas the zoospore release from the zoosporangium has been typically identical to Pythium of family Pythiaceae. Therefore, G. indica may logically be considered in the “connectinglink” position in between Pythiaceae and Saprolegniaceae. .

Keywords : Girishia indica, Reproductive stages, Saprolegniaceae, Pythiaceae, Connecting link.
Volume : 13 (2) pp. 201 - 203, 2021 Download PDF
Prof. N. Venugopal (1953-2020)  

Prof. Nagulan Venugopal born in Tamil Nadu on May 27, 1953 unfortunately left for his heavenly abode on December 28, 2020. He came all the way from south India to join the faculty of the Department of Botany at North-Eastern Hill University (NEHU), Shillong on July 29, 1992 as a Lecturer. He studied science and graduated from Government Arts College, Krishnagiri in 1975, and later received Master degree from Presidency College, Madras in 1977. Venugopal pursued doctoral research at the University of Madras under the guidance of eminent Professor K.V. Krishnamurthy and received Ph.D. degree in 1986. He was a recipient of the Fyson Prize at Presidency College for submission of best herbarium.Prof. Venugopal had passion for teaching since beginning of his career. He started teaching as Assistant Professor of Botany in A.P.A. College, Palani affiliated to Madurai Kamraj University. For almost a decade (1982 to 1992), he worked as Technical Officer in the Department of Botany, University of Madras and during this period, he completed his Ph.D. on “Studies on the vascular cambium and its derivatives in some tropical trees”.

Volume : 13 (2) pp. 110 - 111, 2021 Download PDF
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