The International Journal of Plant Reproductive Biology
(Indexed by CABI)
ISSN Print : 0975-4296; ISSN Online : 2249-7390

Volume-13, Number-1, Jan, 2021

Effect of some growth regulators on in vitro pollen germination in Boerhavia diffusa L.

Gulshan Chaudhary and Prem Kumar Dantu*
Plant Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Dayalbagh Educational Institute
(Deemed University), Dayalbagh, Agra -282005, India.

Received :20.03.2020; Revised: 24. 08. 2020; Accepted and published online: 01. 09. 2020

Boerhavia diffusa L. is an important medicinal plant and is being over exploited and faces the danger of becoming endangered. Studies on its reproductive biology are of utmost importance for its conservation. Pollen germination in vitro is used to test the viability of fresh pollen. Growth regulators are used to enhance pollen germination in both in vitro and in vivo. Present study has been undertaken to study the effect of some plant growth regulators, naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA3) and kinetin (Kn), myo-inositol (MO), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and salicylic acid (SA) on in vitro pollen germination in Boerhavia diffusa. The results obtained have demonstrated that addition of various concentrations of PVP, SA, IAA and NAA to the control medium (6% sucrose) enhanced in vitro pollen germination. On the other hand, supplementing the control medium with different concentrations of MO and Kn and GA3 failed to enhance pollen germination. However, with respect to 2, 4-D addition of lower concentration the control medium enhanced pollen germination.
Keywords : Growth regulators, Myo-inositol, Polyvinylpyrrolidone, Salicylic acid.
Volume : 13(1) pp. 1 - 5, 2021 Download PDF

Effect of different sowing dates on growth, flowering and yield parameters in tomato

Sanjya Bansal
Department of Botany, School of Life Sciences, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar University, Agra-282002, India

*e-mail :
Received : 12. 05. 2020; Revised: 11. 08. 2020; Accepted and published online: 01. 09. 2020


The present investigation was conducted to study the effect of three different sowing dates on plant height, number of branches, leaves, flowers and fruits in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) var. Pusa Ruby. The seeds for the first crop were sown on 18th September and duration of the crop was September-January (34.3-2.8 ºC), and for the second crop seeds were sown on 25th October and duration of the crop was October-January (33.4-9.4 ºC day/night temperature). The seeds for third crop were sown on 26th November and crop lasted between November-March (31.4-16.0 ºC day/night temperature). There was no significant difference in the number of days taken for seed germination and for the development of first floral bud in the plants of all the three crops. However, there was significant difference in height of plants, number of flowers/plant; number of fruits/plants, fruit weight, total yield and the number of seed/fruit of plants. The plants of second crop grown from seeds sown between October-January (33.4-9.4ºC day/night temperature) produced significantly higher number of flowers and fruits/plant as compared to other two crops indicating that day/night temperature of 33.4-9.4ºC is most suitable for the flowering and fruiting.

Keywords : Tomato, sowing period, day-night temperature, plant height, flowering, fruiting, yield.
Volume : 13(1) pp. 6 - 11, 2021 Download PD
  Floral and Pollination biology of Asian spider flower (Cleome viscosa L.)

Seema Chauhan
Academy of Life Sciences, 8/13-I Kaushalpur, Bye Pass Road, Agra 282005, India

Received :20. 05. 2020; Revised: 16. 09. 2020; Accepted and published online: 01. 10. 2020


Cleome viscosa grows wild in the fields in different parts of northern-India during the rainy season (July-October). It is an annual herb and the flowers, borne on typical raceme are yellow, complete, hermaphrodite, actinomorphic and hypogynous. They open daily during 0330-0500 h and offer both pollen and nectar as floral resource. Foragers include honey bees, butterflies, flies and ants. Honey bees, butterflies and flies affect autogamy, geitonogamy and xenogamy, while ants affect only auto- and geitonogamy. This species shows facultative xenogamy, but mostly eliminates forming fruits from self-pollinated flowers.

Keywords : Cleome viscosa, Clemaceae, Asian spider plant, floral biology, pollination, breeding system.
Volume : 13(1) pp. 12 - 15, 2021 Download PD
  Karyological analysis of larch (Larix amurensis) from Priamurje

Elena N. Muratova1 and Tatjana V. Karpjuk2
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Federal Research
Center «Krasnoyarsk Science Center SB RAS», Akademgorodok 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036, Russia

Krasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, Mira Ave., 90, Krasnoyarsk, 660049, Russia

Received :19. 10. 2020; Revised: 07.11.2020; Accepted and published online: 15.11.2020


Present communication deals with the karyotypes in Larix amurensis. Diploid chromosome number was established (2n = 24), B-chromosomes were not found. Karyotype included 6 pairs (I-VI) of metacentric chromosomes and 6 pairs (VIIXII) of submetacentric chromosomes. Secondary constrictions were observed in nine chromosomes; interphase nuclei included from 1 to 9 nucleoli. Karyotype formula of L. amurensis is: 2Msc +1Msc +1Msc +1M +1Msc +1Smsc +1Smsc +1msc +1smsc +2sm. Size of chromosomes of the first group was 13 μm and the size of the chromosomes of the second group was 8,8 μm. Mixoploidy and ring chromosome irregularities were observed.

Keywords : Larix amurensis, conifers, karyotype, chromosomes, secondary constrictions, nucleoli, genome and chromosome mutations.
Volume : 13(1) pp. 16 - 23, 2021 Download PD
  Structure of seed coat in Euphorbia rupestris (Euphorbiaceae)

G. Е. Titova and М. А. Nyukalova*
Komarov Botanical Institute of RAS, Saint Petersburg, 197376, Russia

*Corresponding author
Received :19. 11. 2020; Revised: 28.11. 2020; Accepted and published online: 01.12. 2021


The seed coat in Euphorbia rupestris is distinguishable in to testa and tegmen. The testa consists of a single-layered exotesta, 2-3-layered mesotesta and single-layered endotesta. The tegmen consists of a layer of exotegmen, endotegmen and mesotegmen. The data confirmed the presence of exotegmic seeds in Euphorbia species. In addition, the data on the absence of spherocrystals in the testa cells of E. rupestris (Euphorbia subgenus Esula, section Holophyllum from clade I, isolated in the result of molecular phylogenetic analysis - Riina et al. 2013) confirmed the tendency towards the absence of these bodies in the testa cells of species of sections from clade I (in contrast to their presence in most of the studied species of sections from clade II - Geltman et al. 2014, Geltman 2016). However, the presence of spherocrystals was detected in the cells of the caruncle of E. rupestris. Thereby, attention is drawn to the possibility of the spherocrystal formation in the caruncle of other Euphorbia species, which is of interest both from the point of view of its taxonomy and the identification of structural and functional relationships between the developmental features of testa and caruncle (as genealogical continuation of testa).

Keywords : Euphorbiaceae, Euphorbia subgenus Esula Pers., Euphorbia rupestris, seed coat, spherocrystals
Volume : 13(1) pp. 24 - 30, 2021 Download PD

Comparative study on in-vitro regeneration potential of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers explant grown in MS and B5 media

Soni Kushwaha1, Payel Saha , Akankhya Guru , Ankita Singh , Prasann Kumar and Padmanabh Dwivedi1*
Department of Plant Physiology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005, India
School of Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, India
*Corresponding author e-mail:
Received :19.11.2020; Revised: 10. 12.2020; Accepted and published online: 01. 01. 2021

This experiment has been designed to draw a comparative study between in-vitro regenerated above-ground plant parts of Tinospora cordifolia grown in MS and B5 media, supplemented with different treatments of shoot promoting growth hormones viz. TDZ, Kinetin and BAP. The results are based on physical parameters, which suggest that in most cases MS medium is superior to B5 medium (these parameters are the number of regenerated nodes, leaves, shoots and length of regenerate shoot). However, in one parameter (number of days for shoots primordia initiation), the B5 medium has shown better response. Again, among all the three hormones used, BAP showed better response than other hormones in both the media. 
Keywords : B5 medium, BAP, In-vitro, Kinetin, MS medium, TDZ, Tinosporacordifolia

Volume : 13(1) pp. 31 - 37, 2021 Download PD


Phenology and leaf lifespan of seven fern species in a broad-leaved forest of southeastern Taiwan

Pei-Hsuan Lee , Chun-Yuan Huang , Chien-Yu Lin , Wen-Liang Chiou and Yao-Moan Huang
Lienhuachih Research Center, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, Nantou County 555002, Taiwan
Taimalee Research Center, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, Taitung County 963001, Taiwan
Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, Taipei City 100051, Taiwan

*Corresponding author, e-mail:
Received :20. 11. 2020; Revised: 12.12. 2020; Accepted and published online: 01.01.2021


Ferns could play a dominant group at forest understory. Understanding of ferns’ phenology is an important basis to expose their reproduction, ecology, and biology. To reveal the phenology of each fern phenophase, we have monitored the timing of leaf emergence/senescence and spore maturation/release of seven dominant fern species in a broad-leaved forest of southeastern Taiwan for 3 years. Circular statistics were used to calculate the mean timing of each phenophase. A generalized linear model was used to analyze the correlations of climate factors and phenophases. Results showed that those phenophases generally exhibited seasonality but were not synchronous among species. The phenophases of these studied ferns were most significantly correlated with temperature (73.8%), followed by precipitation (69.0%) and day length (52.4%). Fertile and sterile leaves of every species emerged in different seasons except Plagiogyria adnata, whereas different senescence seasons between fertile and sterile leaves were only found in Pteris wallichiana and the two dimorphic species, i.e., Bolbitis appendiculata and Plagiogyria adnata. Spore maturation and release of most species occurred in September to early October. Our findings highlight the phenophase seasonality among species was not synchronous, even located within a small area. In addition to the phenophase seasonality, leaf life spans and production of those seven species were also recorded. Fertile/sterile leaf lifespan ratios of dimorphic ferns were significantly smaller than those of monomorphic ferns. The number of fertile leaves produced by dimorphic ferns was smaller than that of sterile leaves and differed from monomorphic ferns except for Pteris wallichiana. This study reveals the phenophase seasonalities and leaf life spans of those seven ferns. The correlations of their phenophases with climate factors are also exhibited. Those data provide relevant information for the impact of climate change on ferns’ phenology in future studies. 

Keywords : circular statistics, dimorphism, generalized linear model, monomorphism, phenophase.

Volume : 13(1) pp. 38 - 49, 2021 Download PD


Identification of SSR-Markers distinguishing between Apomictic and Sexual plants in the Hybrid progeny of the sorghum line capable for parthenogenesis

L. A. Elkonin*, A. A.Vladimirova, E. V. Belyaeva, V. M. Panin and S.Kh. Sarsenova.
Agricultural Research Institute of South-East Region, Saratov, Russia

*Corresponding author e-mail:
Received :02.12.2020; Accepted and Published online: 01.20. 2020


The development of lines with an apomictic mode of reproduction in cultivated plant species is one of the important tasks of modern plant biology. Earlier, we reported on the creation of a sorghum line Atc capable of parthenogenesis and autonomous endospermogenesis. In order to further prove the apomictic abilities in the Atc line, we performed genotyping of maternal-type plants observed in the offspring from crosses of the Atc line with the Volzhskoe-4v (V4v) line, and of the endosperm of the kernels from which such plants develop. For the first time, co-dominant SSR markers, Sb1-10 and Xtxp320, have been identified, which make it possible to distinguish between apomictic and hybrid plants in the offspring from crossing the Atc line with the V4v line. It was shown that the endosperm in kernels with apomictic embryos does not contain paternal markers. These data testify in favor of its autonomous origin of endosperm in apomictic kernels and are consistent with the results of cytoembryological studies. The frequency of kernels with apomictic seedlings varied from 14.3% to 20.8%. Cytoembryological analysis showed that the development of parthenogenetic embryos began 3-4 days after the opening of flowers in the absence of pollination. The frequency of ovules with cytologically proven parthenogenesis on day 3 was 12%. The data obtained can be used in research on the identification and cloning of apomixis genes, as well as on creation of sorghum hybrids capable of maintaining a high level of heterosis. 

Keywords : apomixis; parthenogenesis; autonomous endosperm; SSR-markers; Sorghum bicolor

Volume : 13(1) pp. 50 - 55, 2021 Download PD


Flowering phenology in relation to life history phases of Asian honey bee (Apis cerana Fabricius) in Central Himalayas

Rakesh Dhirwan, Ripu Daman Singh, Surabhi Gumber and Surendra P. Singh*
*Central Himalayan Environment Association (CHEA), Dehradun- 248006. Imdia

Received :07.12.2020; Revised: 20. 12. 2020; Accepted and published online: 01. 01. 2021


Flowering phenology of woody species of forests and plants of agricultural fields was investigated in relation to foraging of Apis cerana Fabricius, the Asian honey bee in oak (Quercus) zone of the Central Himalayas (in Rudraprayag district, 1200- 2400 m; 30° 17' 3.89'’ N and 78° 58' 52.10'’ E). The honey bee foraged 68 plant species, which together showed two flowering peaks, the first in pre-monsoon (from March to mid-June) largely constituted by forest treespecies and the second during midmonsoon (July- August) months largely due to cropland and ornamental plant species. About 60% of A. cerana’s foraging activity was concentrated between ground surface and 5 m height. The mountain farmers have lengthened the floral resource availability to A. cerana. The changes in bee life history phases seem to be tuned to the seasonal changes in floral resources. However, the disturbances caused by heavy rain events during monsoon can substantially restrict the bee foraging. Data are also required to find out to what extent host species choice of A. cerana is influenced by pollen protein content. The study highlights the importance of undercanopy forest species as the provider of floral resources (nectar and pollen) to bees. Small trees like Prunus cerasoides if promoted can play a keystone role in A. cerana-based honey enterprise.

Keywords :Apis cerana Fabricius, Citizen Science approach, Floral diversity, Himalayas, Quercus spp.

Volume : 13(1) pp. 56 - 63, 2021 Download PD


Biodiversity of asexually produced aquatic conidial fungi as root endophytes from Kumaun Himalaya

A. Koranga, P. Pant and S. C. Sati*
Department of Botany, D.S.B. Campus, Kumaun University Nainital-263001, India

Received :08.12. 2020; Revised: 17.12. 2020; Accepted and published online: 01. 01, 2021


Endophytes are the organisms inhabiting inside plant organs during their life cycle or colonizing internal plant tissues without causing apparent harm to the host. Many asexually produced conidial fungi which are also known as aquatic hyphomycetes were collected from fresh water bodies as root endophyte. A total of 24 species of conidial fungi were recovered from root part of plants grown in and around Kumaun Himalaya. Three species namely, Lemonniera aquatica, Helicomyces torquatus and Tetraploa aristata were recovered as new root endophyte from Kumaun Himalaya. However, Cylindrocarpon aquaticum, Diplocladiella scalaroides, Pleurophragmium sonam, Setosynnema isthmosporum and Tetracladium marchalianum were recovered with their new host plants.

Keywords : Root Endophytic Fungi, Fungal endophyte, Kumaun Himalaya, New hosts

Volume : 13(1) pp. 64 - 69, 2021 Download PD


Cytological behaviour in relation to reproductive efficiency of some species of Artemisia L.

Uma Bharti*, Eshan Sharma and Namrata Sharma
Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu-180006, J&K, India

Received :17. 12. 2020; Revised; 28. 12. 2020; Accepted and Published online: 01. 1.2021



Present study deals with four species of Artemisia L. namely A. maritima, A. nilagirica, A. scoparia and A. tournefortiana that dwell at variable altitudinal ranges (332-3305masl) of Jammu & Kashmir, India. Each species under study exhibits a variable sex-expression; these fall under three different sections of genus Artemisia. Artemisia nilagirica and A. tournefortiana belong to section Abrotanum, A. maritima to section Seriphidium while A. scoparia falls in section Dracunculus. The genus is cytologically very versatile. The analysis revealed four cytological races in A. nilagirica with chromosome numbers as 2n=18, 32, 34 and 54. Among these, A. scoparia, A. maritima and A. tournefortiana are cytologically stable, A. scoparia exhibits a diploid chromosome number of 2n=16, whereas A. maritima and A. tournefortiana have 2n=18. Reproductive output was maximum in A. maritima and minimum in A. nilagirica. Rootstocks provide an advantage, and help the perennial species of this genus to maintain a variable chromosome number, generated through a small percentage of normal seed- set.
Keywords : Artemisia, variability, sex-expression, reproductive output, rootstock

Volume : 13(1) pp. 70 - 76, 2021 Download PD


Pollination biology and breeding system in Vitex negundo L. (Lamiaceae), an important medicinal plant

Sajid Khan1, Priyanka Kumari1, Ishfaq Ahmad Wani1and Susheel Verma1*
Conservation and Molecular Biology Lab
Department of Botany, School of Biosciences and Biotechnology
BGSB University, Rajouri-185234 J&K, India

*Corresponding author e-mail:
Received :19.12.2020; Accepted and Published online: 01. 01. 2021


Vitex negundo (Lamiaceae), a highly important medicinal plant is widely distributed across tropical and sub-tropical regions of, Asia Africa and Australia. In the present investigation, studies on pollination biology and breeding system were carried out. The flowers are gamosepalous, gamopetalous, hermaphrodite and zygomorphic. Structurally the flower and functionally the reproductive apparatus show entomophilous characteristics. Major and regular insect pollinators belong to family Apidae, with Bombus trifasciatus, Apis cerana, Apis dorsata and Andrena flavipes being the most significant ones. Availability of pollinator fauna leads to the variable pollen load at the beginning, peak and end of season to 49.3, 74.3 and 43.38 respectively. The pollen count determined per flower was 1452±312.17 and Pollen-Ovule ratio worked at 363:1. Flowers are self-compatible and promote xenogamy with narrow chance of spontaneous selfing in nature.

Keywords : Vitex negundo, pollination, breeding system, self-compatible, xenogamy

Volume : 13(1) pp. 77 - 82, 2021 Download PD

  Cyathea cooperi (Hook. ex F. Muell.) Domin- The Tree fern

Shubhangi Chauhan
Department of Engineering, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Blvd., Mawson Lake SA 5095,
Adelaide, Australia

Received :08. 07. 2020; Revised: 15. 08. 2020; Accepted and published online: 01. 09. 2020


The tree ferns belong to the family Cyatheaceae in the monophyletic order Cyatheales, class Polypodiopsida with three genera, Alsophila (275 species), Cyathea (265 species), and 103 species in Sphaero pteris (PPG 2016). Cyathea cooperiis found in eastern Queensland and eastern New South Wales and locally naturalized in south-western West Australia and native to northeast Australia (McCarthy 1998). Large numbers of tree ferns (Cyathea cooperi) were observed growing in Mount Lofty Botanic Garden, 16 Lampert Road, Crafers 5152, Adelaide, Australia (Figs.1A, B, C). This beauitiful Botanic Garden is owned by Government of South Australia and operated by the Botanic Gardens of South Australia. Itspreads over 97 hectares on the eastern slopes of Mount Lofty in the Adelaide Hills east of Adelaide in South Australia (34°592 213 S 138°422 503 E). The Botanic Garden was first opened in 1857 and later for visitors in 1877. World’s cool-climate plants are cultivated and displayed in the garden. Amongst the native Australian flora there are large number tree ferns (Cyathea cooperi), as well as exotic cultivated plants from cool climates including Rhododendron and Magnolia and the National Species Rose Collection.


Volume : 13(1) pp. 91, 2021 Download PD

  Shifting phenologies: a case of Cassia fistula L. from Northern India

S.V.S. Chauhan* and Seema Chauhan
Academy of Life Sciences, 8/13-I Kaushalpur, Bye Pass Raod, Agra-282005, India

Received : 01.02.2020; Revised: 07. 09. 2020; Accepted and published online: 01.11.2020


Plant phenology represents one of the most sensitive biotic responses to climate variability and change. The phenological observations help in identifying how plant species respond to regional climate fluctuations as well as to leafthe climatic changes (Chmielewski and Rötzer 2001). Shifts in  flowering, leafing and fruiting, are highly spatially and the timing of annually recurrent biological events, including temporally specific (Fitchett and Fani 2018).


Volume : 13(1) pp. 92-93, 2021 Download PD

  Seed to seed phenology in Asphodelus tenuifolius Cavan

Usha Devi and Veenu Kaul*
Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu-180006, Jammu and Kashmir, India

*Corresponding author:
Received: 26. 11. 2020; Revised: 29.11.2020; Accepted and published online: 01.01.2021


Asphodelus tenuifolius Cavan belonging to sub-family Asphodeloideae of family Asphodelaceae (see also APG IV, 2016) is one of the two species of the genus growing in India (Hooker 1894). Commonly known as onion weed or wild onion or asphodel the species is reported to be a serious weed of many crop plants notably wheat, chickpea, lentil, mustard, etc (Jain et al. 2002, Mishra et al. 2002). However, it is of considerable medicinal importance. Besides being used as a condiment, its various parts reportedly harbor compounds with anti-microbial, diuretic, anti- inflammatory and laxative properties (Yaghasiya and Chanda 2007, Dangi et al. 2013).

Keywords : Asphopdelus tenuifolius, scape, dormant, nectariferous, weed, medicinal

Volume : 13(1) pp. 94, 2021 Download PD

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