The International Journal of Plant Reproductive Biology
(Indexed by CABI)
ISSN Print : 0975-4296; ISSN Online : 2249-7390
Volume-12, Number-2, July, 2020

Callus formation and plant regeneration in some wild and cultivated species of sunflower

O. N. Voronova
Laboratory Embryology and reproductive biology, Komarov Botanical Institute,
Prof. Popova str., 2, St. Petersburg, 197376, Russia

*e-mail :
Received : 27.12.2019; Revised: 16.03.2020 ; Accepted and Published online: 01. 06. 2020


Wild (Helianthus annuus, H. decapetalus, H. giganteus, H. macrophyllus, H. nutalli, H. occidentalis, H. tuberosus) and cultivated species of sunflower H. annuus (male fertile line VIR 114B, cytoplasmic male sterile line VIR 114A and cv. "Master") were analyzed in present study. Seeds and flowers were used as primary explants for in vitro culture utilizing fifteen combinations of plant growth regulators. Callus was successfully induced from seeds of H. annuus wild type (1 sample) and cv. "Master", also from seeds H. giganteus, H. occidentalis ssp. occidentalis and from H. tuberosus seeds and flowers. The optimal medium for callus formation was MS with BAP and NAA (ratio 2:1) or TDZ (Thidiazuron). Successful regeneration was obtained only from H. giganteus callus cultivated in the dark condition on MS media with low concentrations of BAP and NAA in 2:1 or 5:1 ratio.

Keywords:  callus regeneration, in vitro culture, plant regeneration, BAP, NAA, Thidiazuron (TDZ)
Volume : 12(2) pp. 100-104, 2020 Download PDF

A comparative analysis on the reproductive characters of Lablab purpureus subsp. uncinatus and L.purpureus subsp. purpureus

V. S.  Vishnu and P. M.  Radhamany
Department of Botany, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram-695581, India

*e-mail :
Received : 12.03.2020; Revised: 07.05.2020; Acepted and Published online: 01.06.2020

Pulses are native of India and most of them are cultivated on a large scale in South India. Lablab purpureus is an ancient underutilized legume vegetable crop widely grown throughout the world for its green pod for human consumption. Lablab purpureus is a twining herb with stipulate and trifoliate leaves. In the present study, variations in the reproductive characters of L.purpureus subsp. purpureus and L. purpureus subsp. uncinatus were analysed. For this floral phenology, floral biology, anthesis, stigma receptivity, pollen viability, pollen morphology and seed characters were observed . The inflorescence is a raceme with purple or white flowers. The pod isvariable in shape, size and color with a wavy margin. The flower opening occurs between 11.30 am and 04.00 pm and anther dehiscence occurs before the flower opening. The stigma became receptive from 07.30 am to 06.00 pm on the day of the flower opening. The stigma is wet, papillate with solid style. Flower size and colour were found to be varying between ttwo subspecies,. In L.purpureus subsp. purpureus the flowering was seasonal but L.purpureus subsp. uncinatus it was observed throughout the year with peak flowering during the winter . Pollen morphology, pod size, seed color and size varies between two subspecies. These characters during the present investigation have been recorded for the first time and can be considered as marker for the identification of L. purpureus at subspecies level .
Keywords : Lablab purpureus, underutilized crop, Pollen viability
Volume : 12(2) pp. 105-108, 2020 Download PDF

Karyotype studies on Amygdalus pedunculata Pall. and Armeniaca sibirica (L.) Lam. (Rosaceae)

Natalya V. Ekimova1, Elena N. Muratova2, Pavel P. Silkin1
1 Federal Research Centre the Subtropical Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnodar Territory, Sochi,Fabriciusa St., 2/28, 354002, Russia
V. N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Federal Research Center «Krasnoyarsk Science Center SB RAS», Akademgorodok 50/28, Krasnoyarsk, 660036, Russia
e-mail: ; ;

Received : 20.03.2020; Revised: 21.05.2020

Results of karyological studies of the rare relic species Amygdalus pedunculata Pall. and Armeniaca sibirica (L.) Lam. are presented. In A. pedunculata populations some chromosome numbers were found: 2n = 4x = 32 (tetraploid), 2n = 7x = 56 (heptaploid), 2n = 9x = 72 (nonaploid), 2n = 11x = 88 (undecaploid), 2n = 12x = 96 (dodecaploid). Three chromosome numbers –2n = 32, 2n = 56, 2n = 72, found in A. pedunculata and in the genus Amygdalus for the first time. .A. sibirica has diploid chromosome number (2n = 2x = 16). The both species have the basic number x = 8. Mixoploidy in Arboretum (dendrological collection) of A. sibirica was detected, when cells with tetraploid chromosome number were found among diploid ones. Many chromosomes of A. pedunculata and A. sibirica have two arms and are meta- or submetacentric. Some chromosomes of these species have point form with uncertain centromere location. Interphase nuclei of A. pedunculata contain 1-9 nucleoli, interphase nuclei of A. sibirica contain 1-3 nucleoli. Interphase nuclei contain 1-3 nuсleoli.

Keywords : Amygdalus, Armeniaca, almond, apricot, chromosome number, karyotype, nucleolus.

Volume : 12(2) pp. 109-115, 2020 Download PDF

Factors affecting longevity of spores of Pentarhizidium orientale (Hook.) Hayata, an endangered fern in Taiwan

Pei-Chun Lee1, Tze-Ying Chen1, Yao-Moan Huang2*, Chu3, Wen-Liang Chiou2
Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Ilan City 26047, Taiwan
Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, Taipei City 10066, Taiwan
Department of Horticulture, National Ilan University, Ilan City 26047, Taiwan
*Corresponding author e-mail:
Received : 16.04.2020; Revised: 25.05.2020; Accepted and published online: 01.06.2020

Pentarhizidium orientale (Hook.) Hayata is a native but threatened fern in Taiwan. It has become national critical endangered (NCR) largely due to human activities. In order to save this species, there is an urgent need of its ex situ conservation. Fern spores are normally used for their propagation, and for ex situ conservation the establishment of a spore bank is of utmost importance. However, the spores of P. orientale are chlorophyllous and have a short longevity, thus an efficient and easy storage method for enhancing its spore longevity is important. Therefore, for ex situ conservation, present study has been, for the first time, undertaken to find out effective methods for the storage of viable spores. The spores of P. orientale were stored with or without covering folded pinnae (pinna capsules), at four different temperatures, i.e., -80ºC, -20ºC, 4ºC, and 25ºC. The viability of stored spores was determined by their germination rates at the intervals of 2 weeks for 16 weeks. The viability of spores stored for two weeks without covering pinna capsules at four different temperatures was low. On the other hand, viability of spores covered with pinna capsules was variable. Spore viability lasted for longest period by storing them for 10 weeks at 4ºC, followed by 6 weeks at -20ºC, 3 weeks at 25ºC, but viability was lost in less than one week, at -80ºC. On the basis of these experiments, it is concluded that the best storage condition for maintaining spore viability for longer period is to store spores covered with pinna capsules at 4ºC. It is suggested that in order to enhance the spore longevity of P. orientale, for a longer period, the effect of adequate water contents, degree of maturation, and processes of freezing and thawing of spores should be extensively studied.

Keywords :  chlorophyllous spore, ex situ conservation, germination rate, longevity, storage temperature.

Volume : 12(2) pp. 116-122, 2020 Download PDF

Pollination and diversity of visitors and pollinators of Alpinia blepharocalyx K. Schum. (Zingiberaceae) in Nagaland (N-E India)

*S. K. Chaturvedi, Keviphrunuo Kuotsu and Joyrison Kamba
Department of Botany, Nagaland University, Lumami-798627, Nagaland, India

Received :16.05.2020: Revised: 29.05.2020; Accepted and Published online: 01. 06. 2020


Modes of pollination and diversity of visitors and pollinators of Alpinia blepharocalyx K, Schum. (Zingiberaceae) has been studied for the first time at Mokokchung and Zunheboto districts of Nagaland state of North-east India for a period of two flowering seasons (March, 2018–May, 2018 and March, 2019–May, 2019). Self-compatible, odoriferous and dimorphic flowers of A. blepharocalyx exhibit flexistyly (movement of styles) during anther dehiscence and are foraged for nectar and pollen grains by a variety of diurnal insects, viz., honey bees (Apis indica), blue banded bees (Amegilla cingulata), Bumble bees (Bombus sp.), Carpenter bees (Xylocopa sp.), stingless bees (Trigona sp.) and fruit flies of genus Drosophila. These visitors forage flowers for either nectar or pollen grains or for both nectar as well as pollen grains. The fruit flies of genus Drosophila are attracted by a sweet odour emitted by the flowers during dusk. The bagging experiments of inflorescences exhibit lesser number of fruit set. The lesser number of fruit set in bagged inflorescences has been attributed to the preference of flowers for geitonogamy and Xenogamy through the agency of some biotic visitors like bees and flies in A. blepharocalyx .

Keywords: Alpinia blepharocalyx, flexistyly, Dimorphic flowers, Phenotypes, self-compatible, melliferous flowers.

Volume : 12(2) pp. 123-127, 2020 Download PDF

Herkogamy variation and alternative pollination modes in an ornithophilous species, Pyrostegia venusta (Ker Gawl.) Miers (Bignoniaceae)

Priscila Tunes and Elza Guimarães *
¹Graduation Program of Biological Sciences (Botany), Institute of Biosciences,
São Paulo State University (Unesp), 18618-970, Botucatu, SP, Brazil
² Laboratory of Ecology and Evolution of plant-animal interactions, Institute of Biosciences,
São Paulo State University (Unesp), 18618-689, Botucatu, SP, Brazil.

*e-mail :
Received : 05. 06. 2020; Revised: 23.06.2020; Accepted and published online: 01.07. 2020


In species with mixed-mating systems, dichogamy and herkogamy separating male and female functions are commonly present, which may reduce self-pollination. Here, we described variation in herkogamy in Pyrostegia venusta (Bignoniaceae) and investigated its consequences for pollination in this ornithophilous species. Even though this species is described as exhibiting approach herkogamy, we observed intra-plant variations in style length in nature. Therefore, we aimed to answer the following questions: Can P. venusta flowers spontaneously self-pollinate? Can they be pollinated by biotic vectors other than hummingbirds? If so, are the seeds as vigorous as those produced by hummingbird-pollination? Thus, we tested if the flowers could produce fruits by [1] spontaneous self-pollination and by [2] pollination by biotic vectors other than hummingbirds, which we compared to [3] hummingbird-pollination. We also compared the number of seeds/fruit, percentage of seed germination and germination rate among pollination modes. We observed a continuous variation of stigma position in relation to the anthers in the population, and we verified that a single plant may present flowers with different degrees of herkogamy. The probability of fruit set was the same, regardless of pollination mode (p-value=0.69634). The fruits produced by [2] presented more seeds than those produced by [1] and [3] (p-value<0.0001). However, the seeds produced by hummingbirdpollination presented higher viability (p-value=0.0214) and germinated faster (p-value<0.001) than the seeds produced by [1] and [2]. Our results indicate that P. venusta can spontaneously self-pollinate, can be pollinated by small bees, and by hummingbirds. The presence of diverse types of herkogamy within the same plant, suggests the existence of a wider range of possibilities for this species reproduction. Therefore, spontaneous self-pollination and bee-pollination can represent alternative pollination modes and constitute an advantage for this plant species’ reproduction, as they can continue to set fruits and generate new progeny in an unstable pollinator scenario.

Keywords : approach herkogamy, hummingbird-pollination, small bee-pollination, spontaneous self-pollination.
Volume : 12(2) pp. 128-137, 2020 Download PDF

Pollen morphology of few grasses from tropical dry evergreen forests around Chennai, Tamil Nadu


S. Angel Jasmine and Paulraj Selva Singh Richard*
Department of Botany, Madras Christian College (Autonomous), Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India – 600 059

*corresponding author email :
Received : 12. 06. 2020; Revised: 22. 06. 2020; Accepted and Published online: 01. 07. 2020


Pollen grains of 21 grasses from the tropical dry evergreen forests around Chennai were studied by using both light and scanning electron microscopic observations. The observations revealed that the grass pollen grains are stenopalynous in nature by having single annulate and operculate pore and also notable differences in exine ornamentation. Seven exine ornamentation patterns were recognized through scanning electron microscopy. These findings are crucial in accurate delimitation of taxa within Poaceae.

Keywords : Poaceae, pollen morphology, annulus, exine ornamentation

Volume : 12(2) pp. 138-148, 2020 Download PDF

Thoraxinotribic pollination in an endangered orchid Thunia alba (lindl.) Rchb.f. of North-East India

Bhaskar Buragohain* and Sunil Kumar Chaturvedi**
Department of Botany, Mariani College, Mariani, Jorhat, Assam – 785 634, India
**Department of Botany, Nagaland University, Lumami HQ, Nagaland – 459 009, India

*e-mail :
Received : 10. 06. 2020; Revised: 18.06. 2020; Accepted and Published online: 01. 07. 2020


Thunia alba is a terrestrial lithophyte which also grows as epiphyte on the lower branches of trees. It is also cultivated for its aesthetic as well as medicinal values. The breeding and pollination system of this valuable orchid is not known. Present study has been undertaken to obtain information on these important aspects of reproduction in this orchid. It is self-compatible and the non-autogamous flowers are visited by small bees of the genus Lesioglossum, blue tiger butterflies, Xylocopa, hornets, wasps and the bumblebee species of the genus Bombus. It was recorded that Bombus is the legitimate pollinator, which carries and transferrs the pollinaria attached on their thorax. The bumblebees enter in to the floral passage between the column and the labellum and while foraging, the pollinaria become attached on the metascutum (rear portion of thorax) of the bee. During their visits to other flowers, the pollinia are inserted in their receptive stigmatic surface. This mode of pollination is known as 'Thoraxinotribic'. The rate of open pollination was ca 46% while manipulated pollination (geitenogamy and xenogamy) was ca 90%.

Keywords : Pollinator, Foragers, Self-compatible, Thoraxinotribic pollination, Nectar.
Volume : 12(2) pp. 149-152, 2020 Download PDF

Combined effect of ethephon and morphactin on sex expression in ash gourd (Benincasa hispida Cong.)

R. R. Singh
Department of Botany, Raja Balwant Singh College, Agra-282002, India

Received: 01. 02. 2020; Revised: 08. 07. 2020; Accepted and published online: 01. 07. 2020


Combined effect of various concentrations of ethrel or ethephon (2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid) and morphactin (derivative of fluorene-9-carboxylic) on days taken to first staminate and pistillate flowering, their node position and number, sex ratio, number and weight of fruits in ash gourd (Benincasa hispida Cong.) was observed. All the combinations of ethrel and morphactin significantly enhanced number of days taken for staminate flowering. However, there was insignificant reduction in the days taken for pistillate flowering. Node position of first staminate flower was insignificantly increased, while that of first pistillate flower was significantly reduced. The number of staminate flowers was significantly reduced and those of pistillate flowers/plant were significantly increased, thus enhancing sex ratio towards femaleness and also the number of fruits/plant. However, there was no significant change in fruit weight in combined treatments of ethrel and morphactin.

Keywords : Benincasa hispida, ethephon (2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid), fleurenol (9-hydroxy-flurene-9-carboxylic acid), sex ratio
Volume : 12(2) pp. 153-155, 2020 Download PDF
  Algae of the genus Volvox (Chlorophyta) in sub-extreme habitats

A.G. Desnitskiy
Department of Embryology, Saint-Petersburg State University, Saint-Petersburg, 199034,
Universitetskaya nab. 7/9, Russia

Received: 18. 05. 2020; Revised: 08. 06. 2020; Accepted and Published online: 15. 06. 2020

Literature data on the life of green colonial algae of the genus Volvox (Chlorophyta) in sub-extreme habitats (polar, sub-polar and mountain regions) are critically considered. Very few species (primarily homothallic Volvox aureus) are able to thrive in such conditions.
  Keywords : Geographical distribution, reproduction, sub-extreme habitats, Volvox.
Volume : 12(2) pp. 156-158, 2020 Download PDF
  Phenology of an important medicinal plant-Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae)

Ravichandran Ramanibai and Ezhumalai Parthiban
Department of Zoology, Madras University, Guindy Campus, Chennai-600025, India
*e-mail :

Received : 20.05.2020; evised: 23.05.2020; Accepted and. Published online: 01.06.2020


Annona with 166 species of mostly trees and shrubs (Austin 2004) is the second largest genus of the family Annonaceae, which comprises approximately 130 genera and 2300 species (Mishra et al. 2013). Annona muricata, an important species of this genus, is commonly known as soursop due to its slightly acidic taste when ripe. It is native to the warmest tropical areas in South and North America and is now widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical parts of the world, including India, Malaysia and Nigeria (Adewole and Caxton-Martins 2006). It is well known for its many medicinal uses (Gavamukulya et al. 2017) including anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects (Wahab et al. 2018, Yajid et al. 2018).

Volume : 12(2) pp. 159-160, 2020 Download PDF
  Phenology of Liquidambar formosana Hance (Altigiaceae Lindl.)

Shubhangi Chauhan
Department of Engineering, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Blvd.,
Mawson Lake SA 5095, Adelaide, Australia

Received: 05. 05. 2020; Revised: 01. 06. 2020; Accepted and published online: 01. 07. 2020



Phenology is the study of the timing of plant life-cycle events, such as leaf bud burst, flowering, and fruiting in individuals or ecosystems. It is related with the seasonal natural phenomena, especially in relation to climate and plant lifeend it is influenced by seasonal and interannual variations in climate, as well as habitat factors (Stucky et al. 2018). Present communication is based on the observations on phenological events from 10 marked trees of Liquidambar formosana growing at Chandlers Hill a suburb 
Volume : 12(2) pp. 161-162, 2020 Download PDF
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