The International Journal of Plant Reproductive Biology
(Indexed by CABI)
ISSN Print : 0975-4296; ISSN Online : 2249-7390
Volume-10, Number-2, july, 2018

Climate assorted phenology of Plagiochasma appendiculatumLehm. & Lindenb. and Reboulia hemispherica (L.) Raddi.

Pallvi Sharma* and Anima Langer
Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu-180006, J& K, INDIA

Received: 01.12.2017; Revised : 17.01.2018; Accepted and Published online: 01. 06.2018

Phenological studies have been conducted for Plagiochasma appendiculatum and Reboulia hemispherica growing in different habitats at Sunderbani area of Rajouri district in Jammu and Kashmir in foothills of the Himalaya. Fortnightly populations of both species have been observed for one year and noted that both the taxa prefer autumn as the favourable period for male receptacles and winters for female ones. In both cases, luxuriance of the species has been observed as negatively correlated with temperature and almost neutral with relative humidity.

Keywords:  Phenology, Plagiochasma appendiculatum, Reboulia hemispherica, receptacles, luxuriance.

Volume : 10(2) pp. 103-108, 2018 Download PDF

  Epigenetic regulation of Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Sorghum

Lev A. Elkonin1*, Valentin V. Kozhemyakin1, Grigiryi A. Gerashchenkov2, Natalia A. Rozhnova2 and Valery M. Panin1
Agricultural Research Institute of South-East Region, Tulaikov str., 7, Saratov, 410010, Russia

Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Ufa Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa, 450054 Russia

*e-mail :
Received: 12.12.2017; Accepted: 15.12.2018: Published online: 01.02.2018


Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited dysfunction of male generative sphere caused by degeneration of pollen grains and disturbed anther dehiscence. CMS arises as a result of remote hybridization that disturbs correct nuclear-mitochondrial interactions. In this review, we summarize experimental data on expression and inheritance of male fertility restoration in sorghum CMS types having large non-dehiscent anthers (9Е, A3, А4, М35-1А). We demonstrate that additional irrigation at booting and flowering stages, high air relative humidity, and low air vapor pressure deficit are the main factors that affect male fertility restoration in F1 hybrids in these cytoplasms, perhaps, by up-regulating expression of fertilityrestoring genes. “Induced” fertility stably inherited by self-pollination for 12-15 generations and manifested in non-inductive conditions (in the dryland plots); it was transmitted through pollen in testcrosses with CMS lines, although expression of male fertility in newly obtained hybrid genome again required a high level of plant water availability. These data point on epigenetic mechanism, which up-regulates the fertility restorer genes in F hybrids in these cytoplasms. MSAP (Methylation Sensitive 1 Amplification Polymorphism) analysis of F1 hybrids in the 9E cytoplasm revealed differences in the methylation pattern of the MYB46 gene in fertile and sterile plants. In addition, polymorphism correlating with restoration of male fertility was found in MSAP spectra obtained with primers to Tos17 RNA-transposon pointing on its possible involvement in fertility restoration of CMS 9E. Apparently, in conditions of drought, the genes that regulate the anther dehiscence and pollen development are repressed by methylation. In conditions of high moisture, this repression is removed, and pollen development and anther dehiscence are restored. These data demonstrate that epigenetic changes in nuclear genes involved in regulation of pollen development and anther dehiscence may be one of the mechanisms of CMS.
Keywords : Cytoplasmic male sterility; fertility-restoring genes; epigenetics; drought stress; DNA methylation; MSAP analysis
Volume : 10(2) pp. 109-118, 2018 Download PDF
  Reproductive biology of Alstonia scholaris (L.) R.Br. (Apocynaceae)

Seema Chauhan* and Nisha
Department of Botany, School of Life Science , Dr. B.R. Ambedkar University, Agra-282002, India

Received: 03.04.2017; Revised: 07.12.2017; Accepted: 01.01.2018; Published online: 01.06.2018


Reproductive biology of Alstonia scholaris (Apocynaceae) a medium to large evergreen ornamental tree was studied. It is commonly known as saptaparna or devils tree. Flowering commenced in September and continued till the end of January with the maximum was during the months of November to December. Flowers were protandrous and large amount of pollen and nectar attracted a wide variety of insects during the entire flowering period. Honeybees (Apis dorsata and Apis indica), small bees (Mellipona spp.), butterflies (Danaus genutia, Eurema laeta, and Parantica aglea), black ant (Componotus compestris), wasps (Polistes hebraeus and Vespa spp.), beetle, moth (Achoria grisella) and white and yellow spiders forage either for both nectar and pollen or nectar alone. Apis dorsata, A. indica and Mellipona were the main pollinators of this ornamental tree as they obtained both pollen and nectar by their frequent inter-plant movements to facilitate cross-pollination. The other insects were nectar thieves. Fruit formation started in December and mature fruits dehisced in February. The pollen: ovule ratio and hand pollination experiments indicated facultative geitonogamy. The fruits were green, long double follicles. The mature follicles turned brown and dehisced longitudinally from the base into two halves and large number of compressed and small seeds with a tuft of brown hairs on both the ends were liberated.

Keywords : floral biology, honey bees, butter flies, moth, geitonogamy

Volume : 10(2) pp. 119-126, 2018 Download PDF

Reproductive biology of Gynochthodes umbellata (L.) Razafim. & B. Bremer (Rubiaceae)

A. Gaangaprasad, Meenu Muraleedharan and P. M. Radhamany
Plant Tissue Culture and Molecular Biology Lab., Department of Botany, University of Kerala, Kariavattom,
Thiruvananthapuram–695581, Kerala, India

*e-mail :
Received: 27.11.2017; Revised: 07.04.2018; Accepted and Published online: 01.06.2018

Gynochthodes umbellata (Syn: Morinda umbellata), belonging to the family Rubiaceae, is a climber with bright orange fruit having potent medicinal properties. This plant is a rich source of many biologically active compounds. Traditionally it is used for treating dysentery and diarrhoea. The leaves are valued for their antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and they are used to expel intestinal worms. Fruit juice expels toxins and regulates menstruation cycle. The ripened fruits of G. umbellata are eaten raw. Unripe green fruits are used in curries. Wild populations of G. umbellate are severely depleted owing to its over exploitation. Natural regeneration through root suckers is slow. Propagation through seeds is beset with problems of poor viability and germination of seeds. Therefore, a comprehensive knowledge on reproductive biology is required for effective management, conservation and sustainable utilization of Gynochthodes umbellata. To achieve this, flowering phenology, floral biology, pollen production per anther, pollen-ovule ratio, pollen viability, stigma receptivity, pollen visitors and pollination and breeding system were analysed. The plant is with two morphotypes: ‘staminate’ and ‘pistillate’ flowers are born in separate plants in terminal umbel inflorescence, with flowering during February-May. Fruit is infructescence, reddish orange at maturity, fleshy and edible. Pollen viability and fertility was found to be high. Number of pollen grains per flower was higher in ‘staminate’ flowers compared to the ‘pistillate’ flowers. Percentage of in vitro pollen germination was 28% in staminate flowers in 5% Brewbaker’s medium. No in vitro pollen germination was noticed in pistillate flowers. Common wasps belonging to the order Hymenoptera are the floral visitors in this species. The breeding system studies indicated that self and cross pollination occur in ‘staminate’ and only cross pollination in ‘pistillate’ morphotype.

Keywords : Gynochthodes umbellate, pistillate, staminate, morphotypes

Volume : 10(2) pp. 127-132, 2018 Download PDF
  Phenology and Reproductive biology of Clerodendrum splendens G. Don

Department of Botany, B.S.A. College, Mathura-281401, India

*e-mail :
Received: 21.11. 2017; Revised: 14.03.2018;Accepted and Published online: 01.06.2018


Phenology and floral biology of Clerodendrum splendens (Lamiaceae) commonly known as flaming glory bower and bleeding heart vine, was studied in different parts of Mathura city, India. This beautiful climber with bunches of crimson red flowers blooms from December to April, with optimum blooming in January and February. This species is highly self-incompatible. In order to avoid self-pollination, the flowers exhibit several morphological modifications in their reproductive parts (stamens and pistils). Black ants are the only floral visitors. There is no fruit formation either by self or cross-pollination, which may partly be due to cultivation by cuttings of the same clone. Only parthenocarpic fruitsdevelop in the months of March-May. The failure of fruit and seed set in C. splendens is likely to be related to its self-incompatible nature, absence of the nectar reward and the effective pollinators (butterflies, honey bees and humming birds).

Keywords: Lamiaceae, flaming glory, self-incompatible, floral contrivances, parthenocarpy.

Volume : 10(2) pp. 133-139, 2018 Download PDF

Floral anomalies in Tephrosia purpurea (Linn.) Pers., in response tofluctuating winter temperatures

Veena Kumari and Namrata Sharma
Government Degree College, Paloura, Jammu; 2Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu-180006, India
:; 2
Received: 28.09.2017; Revised: 20.01.2018; Accepted and Published online: 01.06.2018


Shifting of reproductive events and floral phenology as a result of fluctuating winter temperatures has been recorded in summer flowering plant, Tephrosia purpurea (Linn.) Pers., a legume weed growing in arid regions of Jammu Division of J&K state, India. The flowering in this species normally takes place in late spring and summers (April to October) with average 23.07±2.22˚C minimum and 36.44±2.17˚C maximum temperature. However, flowering in the plants grown in experimental plots flowered in the month of January, 2016 (6.42±0.49˚C minimum and 16.55±0.95˚C maximum). The floral buds formed during winters exhibited floral abnormalities. The floral buds were cleistogamous in nature and failed to show normal colour. The anthers were shrivelled and produced non-viable pollen grains. In a limited number of floral buds, the style elongated to raise the stigma out of buds. The number of pods/plant and seeds/fruit were reduced. It was interesting to note that these plants, in subsequent months (after January) with the rise in temperature started producing chasmogamous flowers with higher percentage of viable pollen, and pod and seed production. In a limited number of these buds an additional pistil also developed, but only one of them produced fruit.

Keywords : Pollen sterility, cleistogamy, chasmogamy, extruding stigma, twin pistils.
Volume : 10(2) pp. 140-144, 2018 Download PDF
  Pollen Analysis of Honey Samples From Hamirpur District, Himachal Pradesh, India

Sunita Saklani* and V. K. Mattu**
Sociobiology and Behavioral Ecology Research lab., Department of Biosciences
Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla-171005

e-mail: *;
Received: 09.01.2018; Revised: 11.02.208; Accepted and Published online : 12.02.2018


Pollen analysis of 17 honey samples collected from Hamirpur hills of Himachal Pradesh, India during 2011-12 were investigated to ascertain the honey pollen sources for honeybees. During this investigation, 84 pollen types belonging to 41 different families were recorded. Highest pollen types frequency were observed for family Fabaceae followed by Asteraceae. Among 84 pollen types, 66 were identified up to genus and species level whereas, rests were up to family level. Out of which, 6 were predominant (i.e. Woodfordia fruticosa, Prunus sp., Adhatoda vasica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Brassica sp. and Rutaceous member) and others were secondary, important minor and minor pollen types. This study indicates the appreciable available floral resources and appealing capacity to support beekeeping in concerned region which ultimately boost the honey production and helpful to establish associated industries.

Keywords : Pollen analysis, Pollen sources, Honeybees, Beekeeping, Floral Resources.

Volume : 10(2) pp. 145-150, 2018 Download PDF

Isolation of Nucellin gene promoter from Hordeum vulgare and its characterization in Arabidopsis thaliana

Pankaj Kumar Agnihotri1, Pooja Jha Maity1, Krishna Kumar Dwivedi2 and Vishnu Bhat1*
Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007, India
Crop Improvement Division, Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi-284003, India

*e-mail :
Received: 19.02.2018; Revised: 03.05.2018; Accepted and Published online: 01.06.2018


Towards genetic manipulation of plant reproductive processes, tissue-specific promoters are highly essential. Using ovulespecific promoter, it is possible to express desired genes in the ovules. In the present study, 993bp 5' upstream region of Nucellin gene (HvNUC promoter) was isolated from Hordeum vulgare (Gene bank accession number UB 7149) and its activity was characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana. The HvNUC promoter was cloned into pGEM-T Easy vector and sequenced. The promoter sequence was analyzed in silico using various bio-informatic softwares such as Plant CARE, PLACE and Plant PAN indicated several cis-regulatory elements which could be transcription binding factors. HvNUC promoter::GUS (β-glucuronidase) cassette was developed by fusing promoter with uidA gene through triple ligation and was subcloned in the pZP211 binary vector in proper orientation. The plant transformation vector pZP211 containing HvNUC::GUS cassette was mobilized into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101. Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia 0 plants were transformed with the modified binary vector through floral dip method. The transgenic T1, T2, and T3 plants were analyzed for the β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity and for the presence of HvNuc::GUS cassette using PCR. The GUS activity was observed in 300 T3 plants analysed. The promoter activity could be observed in the ovules of Arabidopsis flower while it was absent in petal, sepal, stamen and leaf tissues. All the GUS positive T3 plants showed the presence of 2.3 Kb long HvNUCpromoter::GUS cassette when amplified by PCR. GUS activity was observed after anthesis till mature seed stage. The non-transformed control plants did not show any GUS activity. Our study has indicated Nucellin gene promoter from Hordeum vulgare as ovule-specific in Arabidopsis thaliana. Therefore, this promoter may be employed in targeting various pathways and developmental processes taking place in the ovules of Arabidopsis thaliana.

Keywords : Nucellin, ovule-specific, gene expression, promoter activity, cis-regulatory elements

Volume : 10(2) pp. 151-146, 2018 Download PDF

  Professor Tatyana Batygina: Scientific Heritage

Galina E. Titova1, Ivan I. Shamrov1, Natalia N. Kruglova2, Nadezhda M. Morozova3, Alexander A. Notov4 and
Jaroslaw V. Osadtchiy
Komarov Botanical Institute RAS, Saint Petersburg, Russia; 2Ufa Institute of biology of RAS Russia;
CNRS, Paris, France; 4Tver State University, Tver, Russia
*e-mail :
Received : 10.12.2017 ; Accepted: 15.01.2018 ; Published online : 01.06.2018


Tatyana Borisovna Batygina, a remarkable first-rate scientist in the field of plant embryology and developmental  biology was born October 24, 1927 in Leningrad in a family of  third-generation intellectuals. October 24, 2017 marks her 90th birth anniversary. She was Professor of the Saint Petersburg State University, corresponding member of Russian Academy of Sciences, Honored Worker of Science of Russian Federation, head of Department of Embryology and Reproductive biology of Komarov Botanical Institute RAS (1983–2015). Unfortunately, she passed away on September 16, 2015 at the age of 87 years.

  Volume : 10(2) pp. 157-160, 2018 Download PDF

Floral Phenology and Breeding System of Aponogeton appendiculatus V. Bruggen (Aponogetonaceae)

K. J. Jyothi* and C. N. Sunil
Research Department of Botany, S.N.M. College, Maliankara, Moothakunnam-683516, India

*e-mail :
Received: 20.02.2018: Revised:07.04.2018:Accepted: 01.01.2018; Published online: 01.06.2018


Present study was undertaken with the aim to study the floral phenology and breeding system of Aponogeton appendiculatus a critically endangered aquatic species endemic to Southern Western Ghats. It shows small, actinomorphic bisexual flowers, with maximum percentage of buds (8.1±0.7) open between 02:00 to 02:30 h. The highest percentage (3.2±0.6) of anthers dehisced between 09:00 to 11:00 h. The maximum percentage of stigma receptivity (95±0.1) and pollen viability (69±0.13) were observed on the day of anthesis. Pollen grains were oval in shape and monosulcate, and 10,000±1000 pollen grains were produced per flower. Seed set percentage was low (23±8.6), and the survival of seedling was also poor. While analyzing the breeding system, the highest pod set percentage (1.1±1.84) was brought about by xenogamy followed by geitonogamy (1.03±0.4), autogamy (0.68±0.73) and lowest in open pollinated flowers (0.4±1). The pollen ovule-ratio and pollination experiments indicate facultive xenogamy.

Keywords : breeding system, endemic, phenology, pollen viability, sigma receptivity
Volume : 10(2) pp. 161-165, 2018 Download PDF

Pollination biology of Osbeckia wynaadensis C. B. Clarke (Melastomataceae)- an endemic plant in Southern Western Ghats.

Simi M S* and C N Sunil
Department of Botany, S N M College, Maliankara, Moothakunnam, Ernakulam-683516,Kerala, India

*e-mail :
Received : 20.02.2018; Revised: 02.04.2018; Accepted: 01.01.2018; Published online: 01.06.2018



Osbeckia wynaadenis is a rare endemic large shrub restricted to marshy area of Southern Western Ghats. The present study on pollination biology of O. wynaadenis, and was conducted at Vagamon, Kottayam-Idukki district, Kerala, for a period between 2014 to 2016. It flowers between November to April with peak in the middle of December. Anthesis takes place between 06.00 – 09:30 h accompanied with anther dehiscence. The life span of single flower is one day. The flower has poricidal anthers and external agency is needed for pollen removal. Buzz pollination was observed in O. wynaadensis, and insects visitors were Xylocopa pubescence, X. latipes, Amegilla zonata, Ceratina spp. and Andrena spp. Fruit set in flowers pollinated by hand is higher than in natural pollinated plants. Fruit development until maturation takes 25–30 days. As capsules ripened, the fruit wall dehisced loculicidaly. Seed germination was 1.8±0.7% and seed viability was 5.6 % ± 2.3. Seeds germinate only in soil saturated with water. There was no special mechanism of seeds dispersal. Human activity, inbreeding depression, poor seed germination and viability, low seedling sustainability, lack of pollinators during humid conditions, low seed dispersal distance seems be the reason for its limited distribution and endemism. The results of the study are valuable for the conservation of natural population.
Keywords : Buzz pollination, poricidal anther, autogamy, geitinogamy, xenogamy
Volume : 10(2) pp. 166-171, 2018 Download PDF
  Floral biology, breeding system and pollination of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.

Soumitra Pal and Subrata Mondal*
Department of Botany, Visva-Bharati,Santiniketan-731235, India

Received: 12.03.2018; Revised: 16.05.2018: Accepted and published online: 01.06.2018



Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. is a medicinally important tree species distributed throughout India. In order to provide important information in relation to reproductive success, we investigated floral biology, breeding system and pollination mechanism which will help to conserve the plant. The flowering period in the trees ranged between 20 and 38 days. The bright yellow, showy flowers start to open from 05.30 h and continued upto 06:30 h during which they emit mild fragrance and nectar. A single flower produced around 35,180±127.9 pollen grains. After flower opening, different insects represented by Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera and Thysanoptera were found to forage the flowers. Among the flower visitors, bees were found to be the most dominant and effective one. Fruit-set in natural conditions was 32% and 4% through bagging while 12% was observed in netting condition. But in case of controlled pollinations 10%, 24% and 16% fruit set was noticed through autogamy, xenogamy and geitonogamy, respectively. Results from the breeding experiment suggested that, the trees of P. marsupium exhibits mixed breeding system with selfing and outcrossing.

Keywords : Floral biology, breeding system, pollination, Pterocarpus marsupium.
Volume : 10(2) pp. 172-177, 2018 Download PDF

Standardization and validation of a modified method for RNA isolation from anther, pistil and developing seed of Brassica rapa

Saurabh Anand, Mukund Lal and *Sandip Das
Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India

Received: 10.04.2018; Revised: 02.05.2018


Studies on molecular aspects of reproductive organ development in Brassica rapa, member of one of the largest familyies Brassicaceae, has largely been neglected in spite of being an important vegetable crop. A major cause for this negligence maybe because of technical challenges related to identification of proper developmental stages of reproductive parts, lack of simple and reproducible method of RNA extraction methodologies from small amount of tissue, and use of this RNA in downstream applications (e.g. semi-qRT-PCR, NGS technologies etc.). To overcome these challenges, we first identified pre-meiotic and post-meiotic stages of pollens and correlated these to anther development stages. This would allow identification and collection of appropriate stage of anther under field condition for further analysis, and will permit maintaining uniformity in selecting the stages. We successfully modified and formulated simple RNA extraction protocols for anther, pistil and storage-cum-RNA extraction buffer for developing seeds. The modified protocols allowed extraction and purification of high quality DNA-free RNA with increased yield when compared to previously reported protocols. Finally, we identified MYB21, FAE1 and ACTIN genes from Brassica rapa and tested the suitability of the RNA for downstream application by cDNA synthesis and performing semi-quantitative RT-PCR (semi-qRT-PCR) based expression analysis. The methods reported in the present investigation will enable researchers to understand molecular basis of reproductive organ development in various species of Brassica.

Keywords : Brassica, anther, pistil, seeds, RNA extraction

Volume : 10(2) pp. 178-183, 2018 Download PDF

  Reproductive biology of dancing girl ginger, Globba schomburgkii (Zingiberaceaeae)

Aswani K. and M. Sabu*
Angiosperm Taxonomy and Floristics Division
Department of Botany, University of Calicut, Kerala – 673635, India
Received: 28.03.2018; Revised: 29.05.2018; Accepted: 01.01.2018; Published online: 01.06.2018


Globba schomburgkii (Zingiberaceaeae) is an ornamental ginger with a very conspicuous floral display, but almost no fruit set under field condition. The pollination biology of G. schomburgkii was studied to determine the pollination system and the reason for fruitlessness. Studies were conducted over two consecutive years (2016 and 2017) at Calicut University Campus, Kerala, India. Phenological studies indicated that the species shows a regular flowering season. Flowers are zygomorphic and hermaphrodite. The flowers are mainly visited by Amegilla zonata, which is the effective pollinator. The study confirmed that low percentage of pollen viability is responsible for the fruitlessness and the plant is vegetatively propagated, bulbils being the main propagules.

Keywords : Amegilla zonata, Bulbils, Globba schomburgkii, Pollination biology.
Volume : 10(2) pp. 184-188, 2018 Download PDF

Floral phenology of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban: a predominantly autogamous taxon of Apiaceae

Asma Javaid, Rinchen Gurmet and Namrata Sharma *
Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu 180006, J&K, India.

Received: 11.12.2017; Revised: 20.01.2018; Accepted and published online: 01.06.2018


Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (Family: Apiaceae) is a small, perennial creeping herb that flourishes in wet and moist  areas on sandy or clayey soil forming large clumps (Hashim 2011) or as a weed in crop fields and other waste places (Jamil et al. 2007). It propagates both vegetatively by runners and sexually by seed.

Volume : 10(2) pp. 189-191, 2018 Download PDF

Cycads in Botanic Gardens, Komarov Botanical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg

Maria Natalia Umana1 and S.V.S. Chauhan2*
Laboratory of Embryology and Reproductive Biology, Komarov Botanical Institute of Russian
Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia
2Academy of Life Sciences, 8/13-I Kaushalpur, Bye Pass Road, Agra-282005, India

Received: 01.01.2018; Revised: 01.02.2018; Accepted: 01.01.2018; Published online : 01.06.2018


There are about 306 species in 10–12 genera and three families of living Cycadales. Cycads are typically stout with woody (ligneous) trunk and a crown of large, hard and stiff, evergreen pinnate leaves. The individual plants are male or female (dioecious) and are found across much of the subtropical and tropical parts of the world. They are found in South and Central America (where the greatest diversity occurs), Mexico, the Antilles, south-eastern United States,  Australia, Melanesia, Micronesia, Japan, China, Southeast Asia, India, Sri Lanka, Madagascar, and southern and tropical Africa (Fig.1).

Volume : 10(2) pp. 192-193, 2018 Download PDF
  jPhenology and floral morphology of Terminalia catalpa L.

Seema Chauhan
Academy of Life Sciences, 8/13-I Kauhsalpur Bye Pass Road, Agra-282005, India
Received: 10.02.2018; Revised : 20.03,2018; Accepted : 01.01.2018; Published online : 01.06.2018


The genus Terminalia includes about 200 species of trees and shrubs distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In India, 20 species belonging to four sections, namely Catappa, Myrobalanus, Chuncea and Pentaptera have been reported to be distributed in the tropical and subtropical states (Parkinson 1936, Srivastava 1993). Almos all these species are valued as sources of non-wood forest products such as tannins, gums, oils, wood and fodder. Organic compounds were extracted from their leaves, trunk, bark and fruits and used indigenous drug preparations throughout the Indian sub-continent. These compounds are used also by industries such as pharmaceutical, animal husbandry, leather, dyeing, soap, chemical, resin and gum, paper, railways, match sticks, oil and cosmetics.

Volume : 10(2) pp. 194-195, 2018 Download PDF
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