The International Journal of Plant Reproductive Biology
(Indexed by CABI)
ISSN Print : 0975-4296; ISSN Online : 2249-7390
Volume-10, Number-1, Jan, 2018

Spore-elater ratio in relation to environmental parameters in Asterella multiflora

Madhu Bhagat, Anu Sharma* and Anima Langer
Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu-180006, J&K, India

Received: 21.11.2017; Revised: 13.12.2017; Accepted and Published online: 01.01.2018


Eleven populations of Asterella multiflora were collected from an altitudinal range of 305-2515 m a.s.l in five districts of Jammu region (J&K, India) of which, seven were analysed statistically for studying the relationship between reproduction and various environmental factors by coefficient of correlation and regression using the SPSS software. Results obtained revealed that there was significant correlation between different environmental parameters and spore-elater ratio. There existed a significant +ve correlation (r=.727) between spore count and maximum temperature and significant –ve correlation between spore count and altitude (r=-.855) and minimum humidity (r=-.739). Furthermore, elater count was observed to have significant +ve correlation with spore count (r=.893) and –ve correlation with altitude (r=-.723). Similarly, spore-elater ratio showed significant –ve correlation with O.C (r=-.802), O.M (r=-.802), N (r=-.802) and elater count (r=-.753). In order to find the influence of each parameter, regression analysis was carried out and regression equations were framed. It was found that at altitude <1500m a.s.l, spore count was influenced by humidity and temperature whereas elater count was influenced by humidity only.

Keywords:  Asterella multiflora, correlation, hepatics, phenology, reproduction, regression, soil nutrients.

Volume : 10(1) pp. 3-9, 2018 Download PDF


A semiaquatic but desiccation-tolerant plant, Isoetes taiwanensis DeVol (Isoetaceae; Lycophyta)

Yao-Moan Huang1*, Yi-Qian Yap2, Chia-Wei Li2,3*
Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, 53 Nan-Hai Rd., Taipei 10066, Taiwan.
Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, College of Life Science, National Tsing Hua University,
101 Section 2, Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan.

Dr. Cecilia Koo Botanic Conservation Center, 31 Tongsing Rd., Gaoshu Township, Pingtung 90646, Taiwan.

Received : 23.10. 2017; Revised: 10.11.2017; Accepted and Published online: 25.11.2017


Isoetes taiwanensis is a critically endangered and semiaquatic plant, which exclusively inhabits an intermittently arid shallow pool for more than 5000 years. It is hypothesized that I. taiwanensis could tolerate and overcome the drought stress and quickly recover once the habitat condition become adequate. Serial observations were conducted to detect its ability to tolerate drought. The dried plants , retained 50% and 30% vitality for six and 12 months of dry spans respectively, even when their fresh weight dropped to ca. 9%. These viable plants regenerated new leaves and roots from corms after rehydration within few weeks. The regenerated plants were able to grow normally and continuously produced leaves and roots in subsequent cultures. This study confirms that Isoetes taiwanesis is indeed a desiccation tolerant species, which could retain the vitality of its corms for a long period under air-dried, room temperature status. Thus it is suggested that corms of I. taiwanensis can be used for ex situ conservation of this species.

Keywords : 23.10. 2017; Revised: 10.11.2017; Accepted and Published online: 25.11.2017

Volume : 10(1) pp. 10-13, 2018 Download PDF

  B-chromosomes in Gymnosperms-A Review

Elena N. Muratova
V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch. Krasnoyarsk, Russia


Received: 25.09.2017; Revised: 27.11.2017; Accepted and Published online: 01.12.2017


Literature on B-chromosomes in Gymnosperms has been reviewed. Among gymnosperms accessory chromosomes are reported in representatives of families Cupressaceae, Taxodiaceae, Ephedraceae, Pinaceae, and possibly in Podocarpaceae and Taxaceae. The number of species with B-chromosomes is more than 35. B-chromosomes are distinct in morphology. They follow specific of behavior mitosis and meiosis, character of inheritance.

Keywords : B-chromosome, supernumerary chromosomes, additional chromosomes, A-chromosomes, karyotype, gymnosperms.

Volume : 10(1) pp. 14-25, 2018 Download PDF

  Genetic stability of embryogenic cultures of Larix sibirica in vitro

Iraida Tretyakova*, Maria Park, Alena Kazachenko and Nataliay Oreshkova
Laboratory of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest,
Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 660036, Akademgorodok, 50, bld. 28, Krasnoyarsk, Russia

Received: 27.11.2017; 12.12.2017; Accepted and Published online: 01.01.2018

Quality of long-term proliferating embryogenic cultures of Larix sibirica in vitro was studied. The cell lines of Larix sibirica developed were characterized by high embryogenic productivity: content of somatic embryos, their ability to mature and grow. Multiplication of somatic embryos was the result of cleavage of embryos, suspensor budding and embryonal tubes of suspensor proliferation. Microsatellite analysis of proliferating cell lines of Siberian larch showed weak allelic variability and the seedlings cloned in forth-year were genetically stable.

Keywords : Larix sibirica, somatic embryogenesis, somaclonal variation, embryogenic cell lines

Volume : 10(1) pp. 26-32, 2018 Download PDF

  Andromonoecy in Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae): a buzz pollinated taxon

Moumita Saha* and B. K. Datta
Plant Taxonomy and Biodiversity Laboratory, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar-799022, Tripura, India

Received: 10.05.2017; Revised: 01. 06. 2017; Accepted and published on line: 01.08.2017


Andromonoecy is a plant sexual system in which individual bears both hermaphrodite (bisexual) and staminate (male) flowers. Solanum viarum exhibits continuous flowering pattern with a maximum bloom from February to August and is andromonoecious i.e., they have long-styled hermaphrodite flowers (75%) and short-styled female sterile flowers (25%) which produces fertile pollen. The morphology of the two floral types was compared. The female sterile type is determined prior to the stage at which the flower buds are visible. Self-compatibility and a large number of flowers simultaneously open on the plant suggested that in Solanum viarum the functionally male flowers assist in attracting and sustaining pollinators and ensure high rates of fertilization through an increased pollen/ovule ratio (2984:1).

Keywords: Andromonoecy, Solanum viarum, self-compatibility.

Volume : 10(1) pp. 33-37, 2018 Download PDF

  Reproductive biology of Crotalaria spectabilis Roth.

Somnath Kar* and B. K. Datta
Plant Taxonomy and Biodiversity Laboratory, Department of Botany, Tripura University
Suryamaninagar -799022, Tripura, India

Received: 10.05.2017; Revised: 03.06.2017; Accepted and Published online: 01.09.2017


The present communication deals with flowering phenology, floral morphology, and pollen biology of Crotalaria spectabilis Roth. Flowering commences in October and lasts up to end of March. Initiation of floral bud takes 8±1 days from the vegetative shoots and blooms in 11±2 days. Fruit formation takes place in November and continues till April. Flowers open between 14:00 to 16:30 h, and are protandorus, and the anthers dehisce before anthesis begins. Pollen grains remain viable for 3 days. The flowers of Crotalaria spectabilis, exhibit two types of stamens, short filaments with long narrow anthers and long filaments with small rounded anthers.The flowers are visited by butterflies, beetles and bees throughout the day.

Keywords : Crotalaria spectabilis, reproductive biology, dimorphic anthers, floral visitors.

Volume : 10(1) pp. 38-43, 2018 Download PDF


Expression of apomictic potentials and selection for apomixis in the progeny of

sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench hybrid with male sterility

Elena V. Belyaeva and Lev A. Elkonin*
Agricultural Research Institute of South-East Region, Tulaikov str., 7, Saratov, 410010, Russia

Received: 18.02.2017; Revised: 25.08.2017; Accepted and published online: 01.09.2017


Expression of elements of apomixis was studied for 15 seasons in sorghum line, Atc, obtained by crossing male-sterile line SK-Mstc carrying a mutation of a dominant male sterility (Mstc) with the line KVV-114. To identify apomictic plants, completely male-sterile hybrids from the BC1 families (SK-Mstc/KVV-114)/KVV-114 were pollinated with pollen of the line Volzhskoe-4v (V4v), homozygous for a dominant gene Rs, controlling anthocyanin pigmentation of the seedling leaves. In the progeny of these crosses, diploid maternal-type male-sterile plants lacking anthocyanin pigmentation were identified and were used for repeated crosses with the line V4v. In each generation, cytological analyses of female gametophyte and pollen were performed. In the ovules of Atc plants aposporous initial cells (AIC) alongside with sexual embryo-sac (ES) were found; under delay of pollination, the aposporous ES (apoES) developed from AIC. The cases of parthenogenetic development of embryos and autonomous development of endosperm were recorded. The frequency of ovules with apo-ES reached 40-45% in some plants, and the total frequency of ovules with apoES and AIC reached 80-90% in some seasons. The frequency of maternal-type plants varied significantly in different crosses and reached 12-30% in some progenies. A higher frequency of maternal-type plants than the detected frequency of autonomous endosperm points to possible pseudogamous nature of endosperm in apomictic seeds. The efficiency of selection for the ability to formation of aposporous embryo-sacs was shown. These data showed that lines with facultative apomixes can be constructed in functionally diploid crop species.

Keywords : apomixis; apospory; autonomous endosperm; Sorghum bicolor

Volume : 10(1) pp. 44-51, 2018 Download PDF

  Reproductive Biology of Eleutherine bulbosa (Miller) Urban (Iridaceae)

K. K. Manjula* and Bindu R. Nair
Department of Botany, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram - 695581
Kerala, India

*e-mail :
Received: 27.07.2017; Revised: 14. 09. 2017; Accepted and Published online: 01.01.2018


Eleutherine bulbosa is the only species representative of the family Iridaceae, tribe Tigrideae in the Indian subcontinent. Eleutherine bulbosa is cultivated both as an ornamental and a medicinal plant, and is often reported to be sexually sterile with no natural fruit set. The present study focused on the floral biology, breeding system and pollination mechanism because despite the usefulness of the plant, very little attention has been paid on these aspects. In order to understand the breeding mechanism, pollen viability status, artificial pollination capacity and seed germination potential were determined. Significant differences could be found in the number of floral whorls, among the individual flowers within and between the inflorescences. Pollen viability was high (68.639 ± 2.619 %) and pollen germination percentage was moderate (57.684 ± 4.461%). The fruit set percentage was comparable in all the artificial crosses (28.33%-31.66%). Seed viability of E. bulbosa as noticed by tetrazolium assay was 68.48% and seed germination was 31.66±0.957%. Maximum germination was observed between 20-30 days after sowing. From the results, it appears that the plant material can be multiplied through seeds, in addition to vegetative propagation, thereby enhancing the production of this useful medicinal plant.

Keywords : Eleutherine bulbosa, Iridaceae, Pollen, Pollination, Seed germination.

Volume : 10(1) pp. 52-58, 2018 Download PDF


Floral morphology of different commercial cultivars and local varieties of Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. (Bromeliaceae) from Kerala

A. P. Nisha* and P. M. Radhamany
Department of Botany, University of Kerala, Kariavattom. Thiruvananthapuraam- 695581, India

e mail*:
Received : 19.06.2017; Revised: 09.09.2017; Accepted and published online: 01.10.2017


Floral morphological characters are studied in different commercial cultivars and local varieties of Ananas comosus. Eleven qualitative and ten quantitative characters were scored for assessing floral morphological variations. Among the different qualitative characters studied, the colour of the peduncle bract, floral bract and the bract leaves below the inflorescence showed major variations than the others. The quantitative floral characters that shown significant variations were peduncle length, peduncle diameter, peduncle bract number, peduncle bract length, number of flowers, bract length, sepal length, petal width and style length. Pollen grains appeared as monads and biporate in all the varieties studied. Medium sized pollen grains were present in all varieties except A. comosus cv. Amritha. In all the four commercial cultivars, pollen grains were subprolate but in A. comosus var. bracteatus it was prolate spheroidal. Exine ornamentation was foveolate in all the four cultivars but it was reticulate in A. comosus var. bracteatus – red and foveolate to reticulate in A. comosus var. bracteatus– green.

Keywords : Ananas comosus, floral morphology, pollen morphology

Volume : 10(1) pp. 59-64, 2018 Download PDF


Reproductive biology of Malabar tamarind (Garcinia gummi-gutta (L.) Rob.: An endemic, medicinal and spice plant from Western Ghats

P. Aswathi, K. Aswani and M. Sabu*
Taxonomy Division, Department of Botany, University of Calicut, Kerala - 673 635, India

*e-mail :
Received : 20.07.2017; Revised: 08.10.2017; Accepted and Published online: 01.01.2018


Garcinia gummi-gutta, commonly called as Malabar tamarind or Kudampuli, is endemic to Western Ghats in India. The plant is a good source of medicinally important phytochemicals. Restricted distribution, habitat destruction and over harvesting for medicinal uses leads to declining of G. gummi-gutta population. Reproductive biology studies such as flowering phenology, flower morphology, pollen viability, stigma receptivity and pollination mechanism were carried out to suggest conservation measures. Garcinia gummi-gutta is dioecious, and the flowering season for both, male and female plants, occurred in March- April months. Anthesis of both male and female flowers and stigma receptivity were observed at evening hours. Small sized pollen grains were spherical in shape and bi, tetra or penta porate. About 4230 ± 602.7 pollen grains were produced per flower. On the day of anthesis high percentage of pollen grains were fertile. Stigma is wet type and broad umbrella-shaped. Wind pollination mechanism is confirmed. Artificial pollination resulted high percentage of fruit set i.e. 96% than natural pollination. After 4 or 5 days unfertilized flowers were falls down. If fertilization occurred, dried petals remained for long time with the fruit. Fruits and seeds mature after four months from the day of flowering.

Keywords : Floral biology, Garcinia gummi-gutta, wind pollination, dioecy

Volume : 10(1) pp. 65-68, 2018 Download PDF

  Reproductive Biology of Salvadora oleoides Decne. (Salvadoraceae)

C. Barman, V. K. Singh and R. Tandon*
Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi - 110 007, India
*e-mail address:
Received : 09.09. 2017; Revised: 14.10.2017; Accepted and Published online: 01.01.2018



Salvadora oleoides is a multipurpose tree species which grows in the arid zones of India. The species is of immense commercial value and now threatened due to overexploitation for wood and medicinal uses. Natural recruitment in the species by means of seeds is very poor. We looked into the reproductive strategy of the species with an aim to generate a baseline data for the species. The main aspects of the investigation included reproductive phenology, floral biology and breeding system. The study was pursued over a span of three seasons in three natural populations located at various parts of Rajasthan. Flowers borne by the species are tiny, non-rewarding and are rarely visited by any vector. The trees flower between January and March, and the fruits become mature by May end. Flowers open during morning and the anthers dehisce within one hour after anthesis. The stigma becomes most receptive one day after anthesis. Although these floral events are conducive for effecting outcrossing in the species, natural outcrossing was lacking due to the absence of a suitable pollinator and wind pollination. In the absence of effective pollen export, the flowers exhibited spontaneous autogamy (autopollination). The latter was achieved by the proximity of anthers with stigma, and due to overlapping of the receptive phase of the stigma with pollen availability within the flowers. Controlled pollination experiments showed that the trees at all the sites were self-compatible. The amount of fruit-set through openpollination was comparable to that from autopollination. However, manual cross-pollination treatment resulted in greater amount of fruit-set (72-74%) than selfing (28-32%), which suggests the manifestation of inbreeding depression. It is inferred that autonomous selfing is favoured in the trees, as it ensures reproductive assurance under pollinator-limited environment.
Keywords : Salvadora oleoides, floral biology, breeding system, autopollination, inbreeding depression

Volume : 10(1) pp. 69-76, 2018 Download PDF


LM and TEM studies on anther development in ethephone induced male sterile plants
of Cicer arietinum L.

H. K. Gupta* and S.V.S. Chauhan**
Department of Botany, School of Life Sciences, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar University, Agra-282002- India.

Received: 11.09.2017; Revised: 07.120.2017; Accepted and Published online: 01.01.2018



Foliar sprays with aqueous solutions of 0.2 and 0.3% (v/v) ethephon (2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid) effectively induced 100% pollen sterility in Cicer arietinum L. lasting throughout flowering period. LM and TEM studies on anther development in male sterile plants exhibited abnormal behaviour of endothecium and tapetum. Development of endothecium was inhibited as the cells in this layer failed to produce fibrous bands. The cells in the glandular tapetum failed to degenerate and persisted throughout anther development. The intact tapetal cells exhibited degenerated organelles including mitochondria and disorganized protoplast. These observations lend support to a hypothesis that the abnormal behavior of tapetum in sterile anthers is not only responsible for pollen abortion but also secrete a substance which inhibits endothecial development. The second part of this hypothesis that the tapetal cells failed to degenerate due to continued sporopollenin synthesis is also supported by present findings. It is evident by the presence of sporopollenin on the inner tangential walls of intact tapetal cells and formation of more or less normal exine even in sterile pollen grains.

Keywords :abnormal tapetum, mitochondria, spropollenin, endothecium, exine, intine.

Volume : 10(1) pp. 77-83, 2018 Download PDF


Phenological behaviour of Piper sylvaticum Roxb. (Piperaceae), a medicinally useful species occurring in Eastern Himalayan region

Wahengbam Deepanita Devi, Padma Raj Gajurel* and Parakkal Rethy
Department of Forestry, North Eastern Regional Institute of Science and Technology
Deemed University, Arunachal Pradesh-791109, India.

Received: 16. 09. 2017; Revised: 20.10.207; Accepted and Published online: 01.01.2018



Phenology and flowering behaviour of a medicinally important dioecious Piper species i.e., Piper sylvaticum Roxb. (Piperaceae) found in eastern Himalayan region was observed. Vegetative and reproductive phenophases of both the male and female plants were studied. Different parameters like leaf initiation, leaf opening, initiation of flowers, peak flowering period, number of flowers, fruit formation and maturity, etc. were recorded. It was found that the leaves and spikes development are simultaneous and mostly occur throughout the year in male plants but varies in female plants. Peak flowering time was observed in the month of February and March in male and female plants respectively. Fruiting was observed almost throughout the year. Fruits mature in 4- 5 months

Keywords : Eastern Himalayas, Arunachal Pradesh, Piper sylvaticum, Medicinal plant, Dioecious, Phenology.

Volume : 10(1) pp. 84-89, 2018 Download PDF


Floral morpho-anatomy and the pollination mechanism of Atalantia monophylla DC.

S. Krishna Veni and P. Selva Singh Richard*
Department of Botany, Madras Christian College, Tambaram, Chennai-600059, India

Received: 28.09.2017; Revised: 13.12.2017; Accepted and Published online: 01.01.2018


Morphological and anatomical characters of Atalantia monophylla DC. (Rutaceae) flowers were studied using both light microscopic and scanning electron microscopic observations in order to understand its pollination mechanism. The study revealed that the flowers of A. monophylla are usually fragrant and nectariferous. High P/O ratio indicate that the outbreeding nature of this species. The olfaction and rewarding nature of the flower attracts a wide range of floral visitors particularly bees, butterflies and diurnal moths. Insect's behavior on the blossom showed that Apis dorsata and A. indica were the potential pollinators over butterflies and other floral visitors.

Keywords : Atalantia monophylla, floral characters, pollination mechanisms, floral visitors

Volume : 10(1) pp. 90-95, 2018 Download PDF

  Nectar production of Diplotaxis erucoides on different soil types

Boglárka Bóka and Ágnes Farkas*
University of Pécs, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Plant Biology and Botanical Garden,
7624 Pécs, Ifjúság u. 6., Hungary

Received: 04.12.2017; Revised: 21.12.2017; Accepted and Published online: 01.01.2018
*e-mail :


White rocket (Diplotaxis erucoides), a common weed species in the Mediterranean region, is known also as a nectar source for unifloral honey. The plant’s spread to countries with continental climate raised the questions if white rocket can provide a suitable bee pasture under suboptimal climatic conditions, and how nectar yield can be influenced by various soil types. The present study evaluated the nectar producing capacity of D. erucoides on four different soil types (sandy soil, potting soil, compost and clayey soil), in various flowering stages throughout the vegetation period. Investigations were carried out in Hungary, from April to November 2008. Nectar production was measured in the early morning hours on each day of the study. Nectar volumes were measured with calibrated micro pipettes, nectar sugar concentrations were determined with hand held refractometer. Our results demonstrated that the nectar production of white rocket flowers was very limited (on average 0.1-0.4 μl nectar/flower), with low nectar sugar concentrations (on average 6-30%) on each soil type examined. On each day of nectar measurements, significant differences were found in nectar volumes and sugar concentrations of plants growing on different soil types. It was observed that adding compost to sandy soil may improve the nectar producing capacity of Diplotaxis plants. Despite the low nectar yields, honeybees, bumblebees and hoverflies were regularly seen on Diplotaxis flowers collecting either nectar or pollen. The apicultural significance of white rocket seems to be smaller under continental than under Mediterranean climate, but it can berelied on both as nectar and pollen source in early spring and late autumn, when very few other melliferous plant species are available.


Volume : 10(1) pp. 96-100, 2018 Download PDF

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