The International Journal of Plant Reproductive Biology
(Indexed by CABI)
ISSN Print : 0975-4296; ISSN Online : 2249-7390
Volume-1, Number-2, June 2009
  Life Cycle (Reproductive Stages) of Ichthyophonus hoferi Plehn & Mulsow, A Parasitic Fungus causing Deep Mycoses in Fish
S.K. Prabhuji* & S.K. Sinha
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Centre, M.G. Postgraduate College, Gorakhpur . 273 001 (India)
Fisheries Department, U.P., Gorakhnath, Gorakhpur . 273 005 (U.P.)

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The mode of infection, its developmental cycle and the pathogenesis together with the host range of Ichthyophonus hoferi Plehn & Mulsow has been discussed and its taxonomic status and the fungal nature have also been reviewed. Various developmental stages of I. hoferi have been observed within the tumour tissues (epithelioma) on the body surface of Carassius carassius L., which have been discussed in comparison to the same stages, reported earlier, within vital organs of the same fish. Furthermore, the need to have intensive investigations on hypersensitive reaction (HSR) between the fish and Ichthyophonus (pathogen) and the active role of lytic enzymes have been emphasized.

Keywords : Ichthyophonus hoferi, fungal life cycle, parasite, Carassius carassius


  In vitro Propagation and Reproductive Biology of Moss Funaria hygrometrica Hedw.
Virendra Nath* , Vishal Awasthi & A.K. Asthana
Bryology Laboratory, National Botanical Research Institute
(Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, New Delhi), Lucknow . 226 001

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An attempt has been made to raise the plants of Funaria hygrometrica Hedw. in vitro, in pure population and in bulk amount under controlled and aseptic conditions. Reproductive behaviour of this taxon, collected from different localities was also observed in culture conditions. Low temperature (18-200C) played the critical role for onset of reproductive phase. This species was found day – neutral in respect of photoperiod for gametangial induction. The in vitro raised plants were acclimatized and transferred to soil.

Keywords : Acclimatization, culture, Funaria hygrometrica, spore, sporophyte.
  Reproductive Biology of Three Cheilanthoid Ferns in Taiwan
Yao-Moan Huang, Sheng-Yuan Hsu, Mei-Hsueh Huang & Wen-Liang Chiou*
Division of Forest Biology, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, 53 Nan-Hai Rd., Taipei - 10066, Taiwan
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Characteristics of the reproductive biology of Cheilanthes chusana Hook., C. hirsuta ( Poir.) Mett., and C. tenuifolia (Burm. f.) Sw., all native to Taiwan, were observed. Results showed that C. chusana and C. tenuifolia were diploid (2n = 60) and produced 32 spore-sporangia, whereas C. hirsuta was tetraploid (2n = 120) and produces 16 spores per sporangium. Spores of C. hirsuta were larger than those of the other two species. Spore germination was of the Vittaria-type, and gametophyte development was of the Adiantum-type in these three species. Gametophytes of C. chusana and C. tenuifolia produced young sporophytes sexually, whereas C. hirsuta produced young sporophytes apogamously. Neutral gametophytes were regarded as immature and were smaller than other sexual gametophytes in C. chusana and C. tenuifolia. However, in C. hirsuta, the male gametophytes were the smallest, whereas neutral gametophytes not only had the potential to produce sporophytes but also were the same size as female and hermaphroditic gametophytes at each culture time. In addition, the lifespan was consistent with the reproductive system. The apogamous species had a shorter gametophyte lifespan, i.e., 6 weeks in the apogamous C. hirsuta compared to 10 and 12 weeks in the sexual C. chusana and C. tenuifolia, respectively.

Keywords : Cheilanthes chusana, Cheilanthes hirsuta, Cheilanthes tenuifolia, gametophyte, young sporophyte.
  Reproductive Biology of Fossil Conifers
Shonali Chaturvedi
Department of Botany, Ewing Christian College, Allahabad, India
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The gymnosperms are an ancient group of spermatophytes date back to the Devonian. These plants constituted the world’s dominant vegetation throughout the Late Palaeozoic, Mesozoic and steadily declined thereafter. A genus of branched gymnospermous shoot has been described from Carbo- Permian beds of India under the name Birsinghia florinii. Its vegetative shoots look like those of modern Araucaria cookii but differ in having simple, bifid and multifid leaves. In this character it resembles the Carbo-Permian genus Buriadia but its cuticular and anatomical details as well as fertile shoots bearing seeds differ from those of Buriadia in having orthotropous, two or three horned seeds pollinated by alete monosaccate pollen grains. The seeds of Birsinghia may thus represent a stage intermediate between the platyspermic and radiospermic seeds. The seeds of Birsinghia are also comparable with those of Physostoma in having hair like projections at the micropylar end but they are present throughout the surface in Physostoma while in Birsinghia they are confined only to the horns. Like Buriadia, Birsinghia too could either be regarded as a very primitive conifer or they could both be assigned to a new group of gymnosperms the Buriadiales (Meyen, 1968). However, this group of plants shows two kinds of forms, those pollinated by asaccate monocolpate pollen of Ginkgocycadophytus type, like the seeds of Buriadia and those pollinated by monosaccate Nuskoisporites type of pollen like the seeds of Birsinghia. However, nothing can be said about the evolutionary status on the basis of this comparison but for the mode of pollination i.e. anemophilous which is evident by the presence of pollen grains over the hairs of micropylar horns of these genera of fossil conifer seeds.

Keywords : Carbo-Permian, orthotropous seeds, monosaccate Nuskoisporites type
  Nectary and Nectar Features: Occurrence, Significance, and Trends in Bignoniaceae
Leonardo Galetto
Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (Universidad Nacional de Córdoba – CONICET),
Casilla de Correo 495, 5000 Córdoba, Argentina

e-mail :; Fax : 54-0351-433-2104

The variety of pollination strategies present in the Bignoniaceae makes the family ideal for comparative studies of the evolution of floral features. Six flower and nectar parameters were recorded from literature for 50 species (nectar concentration, volume per flower, and amount of sucrose, corolla length, and nectary size and stomata number). Comparisons were made between two pollinator guilds and two tribes. Significant differences were not detected between the tribes Tecomeae and Bignonieae (n= 21 and 16 species respectively). On the other hand, bee-pollinated species presented a higher nectar concentration and a lower nectar volume per flower than bird-pollinated species (n=29 and 8 species respectively). Results showed that some nectar features are correlated with the different pollinator guilds and may indicate nectar adaptations by flowers to their pollinators. Floral structural traits seem to be more conservative than nectar features because the lack of significant differences between tribes and pollinator guilds at both the species and the genus level. These patterns suggest that pollinators would be involved in primary changes on nectar traits and later, in a second evolutionary step, on structural floral modifications.

Keywords : pollinator guild, phylogenetic constraint, corolla length, nectar composition
  Mechanism of Pollination in Coelogyne corymbosa Lindl. (Orchidaceae)
S.K. Chaturvedi
Department of Botany, Nagaland University, Lumami, Mokokchung – 798 601, Nagaland, India
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White coloured fragrant flowers of Coelogyne corymbosa Lindl. have been studied for its floral biology at Mokokchung district of Nagaland state. Indian honey bees Apis indica have been observed as the only visitors and pollinators of this species. The sweet fragrance and orange yellow blotches, on the lip of the flowers function as the primary attractants, whereas, the nectary at the base of column functions as the secondary attractant for the visiting honey bees. The transfer of pollinaria from the apical portion of the column (anther) to the sub-apically situated rostellum (receptive portion of the stigma) takes place through the dorsal surface of the thorax of the visitor honey bees. Thus, the mode of pollination in C. corymbosa has been designated as “Nototribic”.

Keywords : Coelogyne corymbosa, Floral biology, Apis indica, Nototribic pollination
  Gamma-ray Induced Abnormal Floral Mutants in Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.)
S.V.S. Chauhan*, Hiroshi Nakashima & Toshiro Kinoshita
Academy of Life Sciences, 8/13 I Kaushalpur, Agra . 282 005, India
Agricultural Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
Plant Breeding Institute, Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan

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‘Stigmoid’ flower mutant characterized by the presence of pistil like structures replacing stamens was observed in M3 gamma-ray irradiated line of Beta vulgaris var. GO9. The progeny of the crosses between this mutant and normal plants consisted of intermediate and partial stigmoid mutants exhibiting various defects in both male and female reproductive structures and male sterility of variable degrees. Present paper deals with the morphological features and anther development in these defective floral mutants of Beta vaulgaris.

Keywords : Beta vulgaris, gamma-ray, intermediate and partial stigmoid mutants, pollen sterility
  Spatial and Temporal Relations of Reproductive Organs and Traits of Self-fertility
in the Flowers of Various Pyrus communis L. Cultivars
Agnes Farkas* & Zsuzsanna Orosz-Kovacs
Department of Pharmacognosy, Medical School, University of Pecs, Hungary
Deparment of Plant Systematics and Geobotany, Institute of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Pecs,Hungary

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Various kinds of temporal and spatial relations of the stamens and stigmata in pear flowers are discussed, based on a series of observations on over hundred pear cultivars. Besides homogamy, two types of protogyny were distinguished and three types of anther dehiscence (introrse, extrorse, upwards) were observed in various pear cultivars. Nectar secretion dynamics of pear flowers are discussed in relation to the floral biological types and possible modes of pollination. Floral traits indicating self-fertility are also analysed, because of their importance in usually self-sterile pear varieties.

Keywords : Pyrus, pear, homogamy, dichogamy, protogyny, self-fertility, nectar, anther dehiscence, pollination
  In Vitro Pollen Germination, Pollen Tube Growth and Pollen Viability in
Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. (Cucurbitaceae)
Aloka Kumari, Rashmi Komal, Rajeev Rajesh & Arun K. Pandey*
University Department of Botany, T.M. Bhagalpur University, Bhagalpur - 812 007, India
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In vitro pollen germination studies were carried out in Trichosanthes dioica. Pollen germination started in 1% sucrose solution. Maximum percentage of germination (70.20+ 2.54 %) was recorded at 6% sucrose + 0.01% boric acid. Percentage of pollen germination increased with increase in concentration of sucrose. Pollen grains remain viable three hours before anthesis. The viability is lost 34 hr after anthesis.

tKeywords : Trichosanthus dioica, pollen germination, viability  
Studies of the Gametophyte Development and Reproductive Biology of an Endemic Tree Fern, Cyathea nilgirensis Holttum
G.G. Mohi-Ud-Din, Irshad A. Nawchoo*& B.A. Wafai
Department of Botany, University of Kashmir, Srinagar . 190 006, Jammu & Kashmir, India
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Studies on meiotic system and pollination mechanisms of Aconitum chasmanthum, an important and high potential medicinal herb endemic to Kashmir Himalayan region, reveal diploid nature of the species, based on x = 8 having 2n = 2x = 16; 12.06% pmc’s produce evidence of translocation heterozygosity. The mechanism of gamete differentiation is, however, flawless with 8 chromosomes segregating to each haploid daughter nucleus. Asynchronous development of male and female sex tracks and protandry promote cross-pollination. Just after anthesis of a flower, the anthers start to dehisce spinulate – punctuate pollen grains (of which 79.30 – 86.51% are viable) subsequent to which the anthers shrivel. At this stage the stigmas become visible and receptive. The stigma receptivity attains its peak four to five days after anthesis. Pollen germination does not occur in 15% sucrose, while calcium nitrate treatment leads to increase in pollen germination and tube length; boric acid, however, has an inhibitory effect. Pollen transfer is entomophilous (mediated by Bombus spp. andBremus spp.). The higher pollen to ovule ratio and controlled pollination experiments reveal outbreeding nature of the species and that there is scope for gietonogamous seed development too. The seed production varies between 31.80% to 58.70% at low and high altitude populations respectively.

Keywords : Aconitum chasmanthum, endemic, critically endangered medicinal herb, diploid (2n = 2x = 16), translocation hetrozygosity, protandry, outbreeding, self-incompatible
  Sex Expression in Tinospora cordifolia (willd) Miers ex Hook. F. Thoms. – A Dioecious Climber
Renu Malpotra, Indu Sharma, Sagar Singh & Namrata Sharma*
Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu . 180 006
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Medicinally important dioecious species Tinospora cordifolia (willd) Miers ex Hook.F. Thoms. has been reported to exhibit labile sex expression. In survey of the plants of the species growing in and around University Campus , University of Jammu, we found the species largely to be faithful in its sex expression. Out of 13 male plants scanned for two consecutive years, only one displayed some fluctuation in sex expression. Female plants were totally strict in their sex expression, but displayed difference among themselves in certain floral features which got reflected in their reproductive efficiency also. Overall however, the species turned out to be a poor fruit setter.

Keywords : Dioecy, Labile Sex Expression, Male and Female plants, Type I and Type II females
  Pollen-pistil Interaction in Cassia didymobotrya L.
Department of Botany, School of Life Sciences, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar University, Agra – 282002,
Uttar Pradesh, India

Floral biology and pollen-pistil interaction in Cassia didymobotrya (Caesalpiniaceae) was studied. Flowers open between 6.00-7.30 am and anthers dehisce between 7.00-9.00 am. There are ten stamens (two long, five medium and three small staminodes). Anthers of long and medium sized stamens dehisce through sub-terminal pores whereas staminodes are non-dehiscent and devoid of pollen grains. There are 220928 pollen/flower. Among them long stamen contributes 67268 pollen/anther whereas medium sized stamen contributes 17278 pollen/anther. Pollen grains are spherical, tricolpate, tricolporate with reticulate exine exhibiting 80-98.6% pollen fertility. There is a single and sickle shaped pistil. The stigma is non-papillate, dry and become receptive between 9.00-10.00 am. The receptivity is clearly marked by opening of stigma through an orifice. Style is hollow up to the ovarian tissue. Pollen grains germinate in the stylar canal as well as on the ovarian surface.

Keywords : Cassia didymobotrya L., pollen-pistil interaction, orifice, reproductive biology, stylar canal
  Phenology and Reproductive Biology of Bombax ceiba Linn. (Bombacaceae)
Mohd. Mansoor*, Seema Chauhan* & Anita Rana*
Department of Botany, School of Life Sciences, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar University, Agra - 282 002, India
e-mail : *, *

Bombax ceiba Linn (Bombacaceae) is lofty deciduous tree. Leaf fall occurs in December to February. Flowering starts from last week of January and lasts till first week of April. Flowers are deep red, hermaphrodite, ebracteate, nectar rich, solitary or in clusters at or near branch end. Anthesis occurs between 0100 – 0400 hrs. Stamens are numerous and arranged in three whorls. Anther dehisces between 0105 – 0405 hrs. Pollen grains are tricolporate and 60 ìm in diameter. Pollen fertility ranges between 65-97%. Stigma attains receptivity soon after anther dehiscence. SEM studies show presence of hairy trichomes on corolla and style. Papillae are present on stigmatic surface. Pollen-ovule ratio is 700: 1. Pollination is brought about by bees, bats and passerine birds. Controlled pollination experiments indicated that B. ceiba is self- incompatible and obligate xenogamous. Fruit and seed-set percentage is low.

Keywords : Bombax ceiba Linn., floral biology and pollination biology
  The Role of Phenotypic Plasticity, Phenology, Breeding Behaviour and Pollination Systems in Conservation of Rheum emodi Wall. ex Meisn. (Polygonaceae) — A Threatened Medicinal Herb
of North West Himalaya
Parvaiz A. Wani, Irshad A. Nawchoo* & B.A. Wafai
Department of Botany, University of Kashmir, Srinagar - 190 006 (J&K), India
*e-mail :

Information on various life history traits of an individual particularly of a threatened species is crucial for predicting their survival capacity and establishing the appropriate measures for their conservation. Phenotypic plasticity, phenology, breeding behaviour together with pollination systems are important in predicting the extent of the risk of extinction and in formulating the subsequent remedial measures. Phenotypic plasticity is the easiest way for assessing the genetic variation both at intra as well as at inter-population level. Phenological episodes provide clues about the altitudinal gradient collection and together with breeding and pollination systems aware the one about the behaviour, functioning and mutualistic interactions so that the practices of cultivation and conservation can be precisely planned and programmed. The present study was carried out for a period of 40 months to monitor the various developmental features in five different geographical areas of Kashmir Himalaya, including Ladakh with the intention of quantifying the genetic variability and to unravel the phonological behavior along with breeding system and pollination mechanism in order to design the conservation policies of Rheum emodi Wall. ex Meisn. (Polygonaceae), an endangered medicinal herb of North West Himalaya.

Keywords : Phenology, alpine plant, pollination, self-incompatibility, competition, strategies
  Pollination Mechanism and Indirect Pollen Presentation in Artemisia maritima L.
Jyoti Parihar, I.A. Hamal, Neeti Chhibber & Namrata Sharma*
Department of Botany, University of Jammu, Jammu . 180 006
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In the sexually reproducing species breeding and meiotic systems are the two major sources of genetic variability. Breeding system controls the extent of genetic variation through a balance between selfing and out crossing which is inturn is determined at large by floral structure, floral biology and by the pollination mechanism practised by a particular species. This communication is based on floral structure, floral biology and pollination mechanism of Artemisia maritima L., a medicinally important composite forming natural and localized populations in Kishtwar area of Jammu & Kashmir state, India. The species is highly protandrous and practices predominant out crossing through a combination of anemo and entomophily. Selfing is minimal in the species and occurs through a unique phenomenon of pollen germination on nectary capping the ovary in the flowers. (Parihar et al. accepted for publication).
Keywords : Artemisia maritima L., pollen presentation, protandry, pollination
  Pollination Requirements of Raspberry in SW Argentina. Preliminary Results
Carolina Laura Morales
Laboratorio Ecotono, Instituto de Investigaciones en Biodiversidad y Medio Ambiente (INIBIOMA,
CONICET-UNCOMA). Quintral 1250, Bariloche, Río Negro Argentina

e-mail :

The level of self-compatibility and autogamy was assessed in raspberries (Rubus idaeus) cultivars in SW Argentina plantations, in order to know the pollination requirements of this crop. Cultivars were highly self-compatible and autogamous. Because of the high visitation frequency, mostly by Apis mellifera, this plantation did not suffer pollen limitation during the 2007-2008 austral flowering season. The presence of pollinators slightly increased fruit set, but more importantly, they increased the fruit quality, resulting in well-developed fruit with regular marketable shape.

Keywords : Autogamy, crop pollination, pollen limitation, Rubus idaeus  
  Remembering Professor Ravindra Nath Kapil
Sneh Lata Mathur & Jaswant Sokhi*
Fromerly Research Associate, Department of Botany, University of Delhi - 110 007
Associate Professor in Botany, Indira Gandhi National Open University, Maidan Garhi, New Delhi - 110 068

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